Today in the history of mounted warfare

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Sun Nov 17, 2013 7:18 am

November 17

Today is the birthday of American Cavalry.

89 BC Pompey Strabo captures Asculum from the Italiots

375 Gratian succeeds his father Valentian I as Roman Emperor.

1292 Edward I of England makes John Balliol king of Scotland.

1558 Elizabeth I ascended to the English throne upon the death of Queen Mary, who died by execution. Although Mary has been recalled in history as "Bloody Mary", in truth her period as English monarch was not characterized by an unusual level of executions and her brief reign came during a particularly disturbed and violent period.

1744 The Philadelphia Troop of Light Horse, a militia organization, became the first cavalry unit in the American Colonies. It continues to exist today in the form of a Pennsylvania National Guard unit.
JV Puleo wrote:Re: November 17, I think that claim that the Philadelphia City Troop is the "First Cavalry unit" is pretty specious... there were "horse" militia units in 17th century New England. They just might be the oldest in continuous service but I think even that is questionable. It sounds to me like the sort of hype many units indulge in to emphasize their "unique" status... maybe good for local morale but it isn't serious history.
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18th PA Cav at Brandy Station

1775 The Continental Congress unanimously elected Henry Knox "Colonel of the Regiment of Artillery."

1775 American privateers raid Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island.

1793 French General Jean Nicolas Houchard guillotined for not acting energetically enough after winning the Battle of Hondschoote in September.

1794 John Berrien Montgomery, Rear Adm, U.S., born.

1796 Napoleon defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Arcole, in northern Italy

1800 Congress held its first session in Washington, D.C., in the partially completed Capitol building.

1814 Joseph Finegan, Brig Gen, C.S.A., born.

1826 John McArthur, Brig Gen, U.S., born.

1834 Stephen Hinsdale Weed, Brig Gen, U.S. born.

1856 The US establishes Ft. Buchanan in the Gadsen Purchase.

1869 The Suez Canal opened in Egypt, linking the Mediterranean and the Red seas.

1871 Boulder Colorado, the future Berkeley of the Rockies, incorporated.

1876 Homer Lea, American soldier of fortune, Chinese general, born.

1878 Anarchist Giovanni Passannante stabs King Umberto I of Italy, who fights back with his saber, wounding his Passannante, and thereby showing that those sabers weren't just for looks.

1880 Rain In The Face surrendered with 500 followers at Ft. Keogh.

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Note the adoption of a Stock saddle in this photograph.

1887 Birth of Field Marshal Viscount Bernard Law Montgomery, Viscount of Alamein.

1903 The Russian Social Democratic Party splits into the 'Mensheviks' and 'Bolsheviks' at its London conference. Oddly, Bolsheviks means "Majority" and Mensheviks "Minority when in fact the Mesheviks outnumbered the Bolsheviks. The split represented a split over the degree of radicalism in the party, even though all the members were radicals, with the Bolsheviks being the more radical group.

1917 DDs Fanning and Nicholson sink U-58, in the Irish Sea, first US anti sub victory.

1917 Lenin announces "temporary" removal of freedom of the press, which continued on through the rest of the history of the USSR, for all practical purposes.

While this event seems remote, it remains as a warning to all societies in modern times. The suspension of a right on a temporary basis too often turns into a permanent event.

1934 Lyndon B. Johnson married Claudia Alta Taylor.

1962 Dulles International Airport in Washington, D.C., was dedicated.

1968 NBC outraged football fans by cutting away from the final minutes of a game to air a TV special, "Heidi," on schedule. :o

1970 The Soviet Union landed an unmanned, remote-controlled vehicle on the moon.

1970 Douglas Engelbart receives the patent for the first computer mouse.

1973 The Athens Polytechnic Uprising against the Greek military regime ends in a bloodshed in the Greek capital.

1997 Six militants opened fire at the Temple of Hatshepsut in Luxor, Egypt, killing 62 people.

1998 Israel's parliament overwhelmingly approved the Wye River land-for-peace accord with the Palestinians.

2003 Actor Arnold Schwarzenegger was sworn in as governor of California.

2008 The vampire romance movie "Twilight" premiered in Los Angeles, an event destined in future years to be ranked with the Vandals sacking Rome as a really bad day for Western Civilization. :thumbdown:

Congressional Medals of Honor awarded for action on this day:

MITCHELL, THOMAS: Peacetime award. Landsman, U.S. Navy. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Richmond, Mitchell rescued from drowning, M. F. Caulan, first class boy, serving with him on the same vessel, at Shanghai, China, 17 November 1879.

BEARSS, HIRAM IDDINGS: Philippine Insurrection. Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and eminent and conspicuous conduct in battle at the junction of the Cadacan and Sohoton Rivers, Samar, Philippine Islands, 17 November 1901. Col. Bearss (then Capt.), second in command of the columns upon their uniting ashore in the Sohoton River region, made a surprise attack on the fortified cliffs and completely routed the enemy, killing 30 and capturing and destroying the powder magazine, 40 lantacas (guns), rice, food and cuartels. Due to his courage, intelligence, discrimination and zeal, he successfully led his men up the cliffs by means of bamboo ladders to a height of 200 feet. The cliffs were of soft stone of volcanic origin, in the nature of pumice, and were honeycombed with caves. Tons of rocks were suspended in platforms held in position by vine cables (known as bejuco) in readiness to be precipitated upon people below. After driving the insurgents from their position which was almost impregnable, being covered with numerous trails lined with poison spears, pits, etc., he led his men across the river, scaled the cliffs on the opposite side, and destroyed the camps there. Col. Bearss and the men under his command overcame incredible difficulties and dangers in destroying positions which, according to reports from old prisoners, had taken 3 years to perfect, were held as a final rallying point, and were never before penetrated by white troops. Col. Bearss also rendered distinguished public service in the presence of the enemy at Quinapundan River, Samar, Philippine Islands, on 19 January 1902.

PORTER, DAVID DIXON: Philippine Insurrection. Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and eminent and conspicuous conduct in battle at the junction of the Cadacan and Sohoton Rivers, Samar, Philippine Islands, 17 November 1901. In command of the columns upon their uniting ashore in the Sohoton Region, Col. Porter (then Capt. ) made a surprise attack on the fortified cliffs and completely routed the enemy, killing 30 and capturing and destroying the powder magazine, 40 lantacas (guns), rice, food and cuartels. Due to his courage, intelligence, discrimination and zeal, he successfully led his men up the cliffs by means of bamboo ladders to a height of 200 feet. The cliffs were of soft stone of volcanic origin, in the nature of pumice and were honeycombed with caves. Tons of rocks were suspended in platforms held in position by vines and cables (known as bejuco) in readiness to be precipitated upon people below. After driving the insurgents from their position which was almost impregnable, being covered with numerous trails lined with poisoned spears, pits, etc., Col. Porter led his men across the river, scaled the cliffs on the opposite side, and destroyed the camps there. He and the men under his command overcame incredible difficulties and dangers in destroying positions which, according to reports from old prisoners, had taken 3 years to perfect, were held as a final rallying post, and were never before penetrated by white troops. Col. Porter also rendered distinguished public service in the presence of the enemy at Quinapundan River, Samar, Philippine Islands, on 26 October 1901.

BUTLER, SMEDLEY DARLINGTON: Haiti. Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Citation: As Commanding Officer of detachments from the 5th, 13th, 23d Companies and the marine and sailor detachment from the U.S.S. Connecticut, Maj. Butler led the attack on Fort Riviere, Haiti, 17 November 1915. Following a concentrated drive, several different detachments of marines gradually closed in on the old French bastion fort in an effort to cut off all avenues of retreat for the Caco bandits. Reaching the fort on the southern side where there was a small opening in the wall, Maj. Butler gave the signal to attack and marines from the 15th Company poured through the breach, engaged the Cacos in hand-to-hand combat, took the bastion and crushed the Caco resistance. Throughout this perilous action, Maj. Butler was conspicuous for his bravery and forceful leadership.

This was Maj. Butler's second award of the CMH.

GROSS, SAMUEL (Marguiles, Samuel): Haiti. Private, U.S. Marine Corps, 23d Co. Citation: In company with members of the 5th, 13th, 23d Companies and the marine and sailor detachment from the U.S.S. Connecticut, Gross participated in the attack on Fort Riviere, Haiti, 17 November 1915. Following a concentrated drive, several different detachments of marines gradually closed in on the old French bastion fort in an effort to cut off all avenues of retreat for the Caco bandits. Approaching a breach in the wall which was the only entrance to the fort, Gross was the second man to pass through the breach in the face of constant fire from the Cacos and, thereafter, for a 10-minute period, engaged the enemy in desperate hand-to-hand combat until the bastion was captured and Caco resistance neutralized.

IAMS, ROSS LINDSEY: Haiti. Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 5th Co. Citation: In company with members of the 5th, 13th, 23d Companies and marine and sailor detachment from the U.S.S. Connecticut, Sgt. Iams participated in the attack on Fort Riviere, Haiti, 17 November 1915. Following a concentrated drive, several different detachments of marines gradually closed in on the old French bastion fort in an effort to cut off all avenues of retreat for the Caco bandits. Approaching a breach in the wall which was the only entrance to the fort, Sgt. Iams unhesitatingly jumped through the breach despite constant fire from the Cacos and engaged the enemy in a desperate hand-to-hand combat until the bastion was captured and Caco resistance neutralized.

RAY, BERNARD J.: World War Two. Posthumous award. First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company F, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Hurtgen Forest near Schevenhutte, Germany, 17 November 1944. Citation: He was platoon leader with Company F, 8th Infantry, on 17 November 1944, during the drive through the Hurtgen Forest near Schevenhutte, Germany. The American forces attacked in wet, bitterly cold weather over rough, wooded terrain, meeting brutal resistance from positions spaced throughout the forest behind minefields and wire obstacles. Small arms, machinegun, mortar, and artillery fire caused heavy casualties in the ranks when Company F was halted by a concertina-type wire barrier. Under heavy fire, 1st Lt. Ray reorganized his men and prepared to blow a path through the entanglement, a task which appeared impossible of accomplishment and from which others tried to dissuade him. With implacable determination to clear the way, he placed explosive caps in his pockets, obtained several bangalore torpedoes, and then wrapped a length of highly explosive primer cord about his body. He dashed forward under direct fire, reached the barbed wire and prepared his demolition charge as mortar shells, which were being aimed at him alone, came steadily nearer his completely exposed position. He had placed a torpedo under the wire and was connecting it to a charge he carried when he was severely wounded by a bursting mortar shell. Apparently realizing that he would fail in his self-imposed mission unless he completed it in a few moments he made a supremely gallant decision. With the primer cord still wound about his body and the explosive caps in his pocket, he completed a hasty wiring system and unhesitatingly thrust down on the handle of the charger, destroying himself with the wire barricade in the resulting blast. By the deliberate sacrifice of his life, 1st Lt. Ray enabled his company to continue its attack, resumption of which was of positive significance in gaining the approaches to the Cologne Plain.

Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:

Charles PYE: Indian Mutiny. Sergeant-major. 53rd Regiment of Foot, British Army. Citation: For steadiness and fearless conduct under fire at Lucknow, on the 17th of November, 1857, when bringing up ammunition to the Mess House, and on every occasion when the Regiment has been engaged. Elected by the non-commissioned officers of the Regiment.

Patrick GRAHAM: Indian Mutiny. Private. 90th Regiment of Foot, British Army Citation: For bringing in a wounded comrade under a very heavy fire, on the 17th of November, 1857, at Lucknow. Elected by the private soldiers of the Regiment.

John BUTLER: World War One. Lieutenant. The King's Royal Rifle Corps. Citation: For most conspicuous bravery in the Cameroons, West Africa. On 17th November, 1914, with a party of 13 men, he went into the thick bush and at once attacked the enemy, in strength about 100, including several Europeans, defeated them, and captured their machine gun and many loads of ammunition. On 27th December, 1914, when on patrol duty, with a few men, he swam the Ekam River, which was held by the enemy, alone and in the face of a brisk fire, completed his reconnaissance on the further bank, and returned in safety. Two of his men were wounded while he was actually in the water.

He later achieved the rank of Captain, and was killed in action at Motomba on September 5, 1916.

John CARLESS: World War One. Posthumous award. Ordinary Seaman. Royal Navy. Second Battle of Heligoland Bight, Germany. 17 November 1917. Citation: For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. Although mortally wounded in the abdomen, he still went on serving the gun at which he was acting as rammer, lifting a projectile and helping to clear away the other casualties. He collapsed once, but got up, tried again, and cheered on the new gun's crew. He then fell and died. He not only set a very inspiring and memorable example, but he also, whilst mortally wounded, continued to do effective work against the King's enemies.

Geoffrey KEYES: World War Two. Posthumous award. Citation: The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the posthumous award of the VICTORIA CROSS to the undermentioned officer: —

Major (temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) Geoffrey Charles Tasker Keyes, M.C. (71081), The Royal Scots Greys (2nd Dragoons), Royal Armoured Corps (Buckingham).

Lieutenant-Colonel Keyes commanded a detachment of a force which landed some 250 miles behind the enemy lines to attack Headquarters, Base Installations and Communications.

From the outset Lieutenant-Colonel Keyes deliberately selected for himself the command of the detachment detailed to attack what was undoubtedly the most hazardous of these objectives—the residence and Headquarters of the General Officer Commanding the German forces in North Africa. This attack, even if initially successful, meant almost certain death for those who took part in it.

He led his detachment without guides, in dangerous and precipitous country and in pitch darkness, and maintained by his stolid determination and powers of leadership the morale of the detachment. He then found himself forced to modify his original plans in the light of fresh information elicited from neighbouring Arabs, and was left with only one officer and an N.C.O. with whom to break into General Rommel's residence and deal with the guards and Headquarters Staff.

At zero hour on the night of 17th-18th November, 1941, having despatched the covering party to block the approaches to the house, he himself with the two others crawled forward past the guards, through the surrounding fence and so up to the house itself. Without hesitation, he boldly led his party up to the front door, beat on the door and demanded entrance.

Unfortunately, when the door was opened, it was found impossible to overcome the sentry silently, and it was necessary to shoot him. The noise of the shot naturally aroused the inmates of the house and Lieutenant-Colonel Keyes, appreciating that speed was now of the utmost importance, posted the N.C.O. at the foot of the stairs to prevent interference from the floor above.

Lieutenant-Colonel Keyes, who instinctively took the lead, emptied his revolver with great success into the first room and was followed by the other officer who threw a grenade.

Lieutenant-Colonel Keyes with great daring then entered the second room on the ground floor but was shot almost immediately on flinging open the door and fell back into the passage mortally wounded. On being carried outside by his companions he died within a few minutes.
By his fearless disregard of the great dangers which he ran and of which he was fully aware, and by his magnificent leadership and outstanding gallantry, Lieutenant-Colonel Keyes set an example of supreme self sacrifice and devotion to duty.

Last supplemented on November 17, 2013.
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Sun Nov 17, 2013 7:24 am

Calendar wrote:November 17

Today is the birthday of American Cavalry.
In honor of which drinks are half price in the clubhouse today between 15:00 and 18:00, after which Joe and Dusan will be hosting the annual Cavalry Birthday Bash. Dress will be semi formal. Gentlemen are reminded to remove their spurs.

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And no silly hats this year either.
Pat

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Sun Nov 17, 2013 8:31 am

Many Happy Returns everyone!
I'll be taking names for the rumpus room Polo teams after the toasts.
NO choice of mounts Pat!
Hats are optional after close of formal activities....
Dušan
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Mon Nov 18, 2013 2:57 am

In answer to Couvi's question re Ship's Corporal: a ship's corporal was assistant to the Master-at-Arms. They were ship's policemen. They were seamen, not marines, at least in the British Royal Navy. In the RN they are now called Regulating Petty Officers and Leading Regulators. Originally, they were also responsible for instruction in musketry, but during the 18th century their duties shifted to general discipline. I don't know haw far back the nicknames go, but in my time Masters-at-Arms were known informally as Jossmen and Regulators as Crushers, from the heavy "beetle-crusher" boots they wore.
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Mon Nov 18, 2013 7:01 am

November 18

326 Original St. Peter's Basilica consecrated.

1307 Wilhelm Tell supposedly shoots an apple off his son's head.

1493 Christopher Columbus first sights Puerto Rico.

1626 Rebuilt St. Peter's Basilica consecrated.

1755 The Great Cape Ann Earthquake, New England, occurs.

1810 Benjamin Stone Roberts, Brig Gen, U.S. and author of "Roberts' Rules", born.

1812 Jesse Johnson Finley, Brig Gen, C.S.A., born.

1820 U.S. Navy Capt. Nathaniel B. Palmer discovered Antarctica.

1824 Franz Sigel, Maj Gen, U.S., born.

1837 William Lyon Mackenzie decides to launch on a coup d'etat in Canada on December 7 seeking to create a republican government in Canada that would petition for union with the United States.

1861 Julia Ward Howe writes the lyrics for the Battle Hymn of the Republic.

1883 The United States and Canada adopted a system of standard time zones. This was made necessary by transcontinental railroads.

1883 John (Manual Felipe) Phillips (Cardoso) died in Cheyenne Wyoming. He is famously remembered as the civilian who rode 236 miles from Ft. Phil Kearny to Ft. Laramie following the Fetterman Fight. Phillips is an interesting character and was born in the Azores in 1832, which he left at age 18 on a whaler bound for California in order to pan for gold. He was a gold prospector across the West for 15 year. He was actually at Ft. Phil Kearny as a party of miners he was left had pulled into the fort in September of 1866.His famous ride is somewhat inaccurately remembered, as he did not make the entire ride alone, as often imagined, but instead rode with Daniel Dixon. Both men were paid $300.00 for their effort. After this event Phillips switched occupations to that of mail courier, and then he became a tie hack in Elk Mountain Wyoming, supplying rails to the Union Pacific. In 1870 he married and founded a ranch at Chugwater, Wyoming. He and his wife sold the ranch in 1878, and he moved to Cheyenne where he lived until his death.

1886 Chester A. Arthur, the 21st president of the United States, died in New York at age 56.

1890 USS Maine launched.

1905 Prince Carl of Denmark becomes King Haakon VII of Norway.

1912 Albania declares independence from Turkey.

1914 Russian Black Sea Fleet defeats a Turko-German squadron off Cape Sarych.

1916 The Battle of the Somme ends.

1918 Latvia declares its independence from Russia.

1922 Court martial of the eclectic Erskine Childers begins.

1923 Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., the first American in space, was born in East Derry, N.H.

1926 George Bernard Shaw refuses to accept the Nobel Prize money awarded to him noting: "I can forgive Nobel for inventing dynamite, but only a fiend in human form could have invented the Nobel Prize."

1926 This photograph of Billy Mitchell taken:
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1928 The first successful sound-synchronized animated cartoon, Walt Disney's "Steamboat Willie" starring Mickey Mouse, premiered in New York.

1941 Last Italian forces in Ethiopia surrender to the British.

1943 The Wyoming Department of Education released the results of a survey revealing that the state was short 70 teachers, no doubt the result of teachers having joined the armed forces during World War Two.

1961 US sends 18,000 military advisers to South Vietnam.

1963 The first push-button telephone goes into service.

1976 The Spanish parliament approved a bill to re-establish a democracy.

2002 U.N. arms inspectors returned to Iraq after a four-year hiatus.

Congressional Medals of Honor awarded for action on this day:

DAVIS, SAMMY L.: Vietnam War. Sergeant, U.S. Army, Battery C, 2d Battalion, 4th Artillery, 9th Infantry Division. Place and date: West of Cai Lay, Republic of Vietnam, 18 November 1967. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Davis (then Pfc.) distinguished himself during the early morning hours while serving as a cannoneer with Battery C, at a remote fire support base. At approximately 0200 hours, the fire support base was under heavy enemy mortar attack. Simultaneously, an estimated reinforced Viet Cong battalion launched a fierce ground assault upon the fire support base. The attacking enemy drove to within 25 meters of the friendly positions. Only a river separated the Viet Cong from the fire support base. Detecting a nearby enemy position, Sgt. Davis seized a machine gun and provided covering fire for his guncrew, as they attempted to bring direct artillery fire on the enemy. Despite his efforts, an enemy recoilless rifle round scored a direct hit upon the artillery piece. The resultant blast hurled the guncrew from their weapon and blew Sgt. Davis into a foxhole. He struggled to his feet and returned to the howitzer, which was burning furiously. Ignoring repeated warnings to seek cover, Sgt. Davis rammed a shell into the gun. Disregarding a withering hail of enemy fire directed against his position, he aimed and fired the howitzer which rolled backward, knocking Sgt. Davis violently to the ground. Undaunted, he returned to the weapon to fire again when an enemy mortar round exploded within 20 meters of his position, injuring him painfully. Nevertheless, Sgt. Davis loaded the artillery piece, aimed and fired. Again he was knocked down by the recoil. In complete disregard for his safety, Sgt. Davis loaded and fired 3 more shells into the enemy. Disregarding his extensive injuries and his inability to swim, Sgt. Davis picked up an air mattress and struck out across the deep river to rescue 3 wounded comrades on the far side. Upon reaching the 3 wounded men, he stood upright and fired into the dense vegetation to prevent the Viet Cong from advancing. While the most seriously wounded soldier was helped across the river, Sgt. Davis protected the 2 remaining casualties until he could pull them across the river to the fire support base. Though suffering from painful wounds, he refused medical attention, joining another howitzer crew which fired at the large Viet Cong force until it broke contact and fled. Sgt. Davis' extraordinary heroism, at the risk of his life, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.

Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:

George MONGER Indian Mutiny. Private. 23rd Regiment, Private. British Army. 18th November, 1857 Citation: For daring gallantry at Secundra Bagh, Lucknow, on the 18th of November, 1857, in having volunteered to accompany Lieutenant Hackett, whom he assisted in bringing in a Corporal of the 23rd Regiment, who was lying wounded in an exposed position.

Thomas HACKETT: Indian Mutiny. Lieutenant 23rd Regiment. British Army. 18th November, 1857. Citation: For daring gallantry at Secundra Bagh, Lucknow, on the 18th November, 1857, in having with others, rescued a Corporal of the 23rd Regiment, who was lying wounded and exposed to very heavy fire. Also, for conspicuous bravery, in having, under a heavy fire, ascended the roof, and cut down the thatch of a Bungalow, to prevent its being set on fire. This was a most important service at the time.
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Mon Nov 18, 2013 8:02 am

Jon Holford wrote:In answer to Couvi's question re Ship's Corporal: a ship's corporal was assistant to the Master-at-Arms. They were ship's policemen. They were seamen, not marines, at least in the British Royal Navy. In the RN they are now called Regulating Petty Officers and Leading Regulators. Originally, they were also responsible for instruction in musketry, but during the 18th century their duties shifted to general discipline. I don't know haw far back the nicknames go, but in my time Masters-at-Arms were known informally as Jossmen and Regulators as Crushers, from the heavy "beetle-crusher" boots they wore.
What is the actual rank of this individual?
Couvi

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Mon Nov 18, 2013 11:43 am

In his day, the ship's cporporal was a rate in its own right, equivalent to a petty officer. Today's "crushers" are petty officers and leading rates. The British Army equivalents are serjeant* and corporal. In US terms, this can be confusing, as a British sergeant's typical appointment is platoon serjeant and a corporal is a section (= squad) leader. Just to confuse things further, a leading rate in the Navy ranks "with but after" an Army corporal, but before a Lance-Corporal, which is the lowest NCO rank. Until the late 19th century, NCO ranks, as such, didn't exist in the RN. Most specialists were petty officers of one sort or another, but there were also "inferior warrant officers", including the MASTER-at-ARMS 9now a CPO or full warrant officer), but most were artisans, such as the caulker. Navy warrant officers of the 18th and 19th centuries would be worth a thread to themselves, save that they are about as un-equestrian as you can get! :D
In today's US terms, a Master at Arms (19th C) could be thought of as E7 to E9, according to the size of the ship he served in, and a Ship's Corporal would be an E4 or E5. In small ships, there was no Master at Arms abd the Ship,s Corporal worked alone. A master at arms is traditionally the senior rating in the ship, and wears a sword on formal occasions. However, he is not a sort of Command Sergeant Major; more of a "village cop". My copy of Kelly's Kedge Anchor tells me the USN had ship's corporals, at least up to 1842, but does not define their duties. There, too they seem to have been junior petty officers.

How far off topic can I get without having to muck out the stables?

Serjeant is the British Army spelling; Royal Marines and the RAF have sergeants.
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Mon Nov 18, 2013 5:14 pm

Jon Holford wrote:In his day, the ship's cporporal was a rate in its own right, equivalent to a petty officer. Today's "crushers" are petty officers and leading rates. The British Army equivalents are serjeant* and corporal. In US terms, this can be confusing, as a British sergeant's typical appointment is platoon serjeant and a corporal is a section (= squad) leader. Just to confuse things further, a leading rate in the Navy ranks "with but after" an Army corporal, but before a Lance-Corporal, which is the lowest NCO rank. Until the late 19th century, NCO ranks, as such, didn't exist in the RN. Most specialists were petty officers of one sort or another, but there were also "inferior warrant officers", including the MASTER-at-ARMS 9now a CPO or full warrant officer), but most were artisans, such as the caulker. Navy warrant officers of the 18th and 19th centuries would be worth a thread to themselves, save that they are about as un-equestrian as you can get! :D
In today's US terms, a Master at Arms (19th C) could be thought of as E7 to E9, according to the size of the ship he served in, and a Ship's Corporal would be an E4 or E5. In small ships, there was no Master at Arms abd the Ship,s Corporal worked alone. A master at arms is traditionally the senior rating in the ship, and wears a sword on formal occasions. However, he is not a sort of Command Sergeant Major; more of a "village cop". My copy of Kelly's Kedge Anchor tells me the USN had ship's corporals, at least up to 1842, but does not define their duties. There, too they seem to have been junior petty officers.

How far off topic can I get without having to muck out the stables?

Serjeant is the British Army spelling; Royal Marines and the RAF have sergeants.
Jon,

Given the non-equestrian nature of the topic, this is a very nice save. LOL. :thumbup:
Couvi

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Tue Nov 19, 2013 6:16 am

November 19
Today is International Man's Day. Really, it is, I'm not making that up.

It was Artillery Day in Russia at one time.

1578 Humphrey Gilbert leaves Plymouth with ten ships commissioned by Queen to find new lands and start colony. Three ships desert to piracy and the rest are forced to return to England. It cannot be regarded as a successful venture. :roll:

1581 Prince Ivan of Russia, 27, killed by his father, Ivan the Terrible.

1600 King Charles I of England born.

1620 The Pilgrims reached Cape Cod.

1703 The 'Man in the Iron Mask', dies in the Bastille.

1752 George Rogers Clark, frontiersman, soldier born.

1775 Gen. Benedict Arnold retreats up river from Quebec to await arrival of Richard Montgomery coming down river from Montreal. The Americans, on the brink of taking Canada, begin to suffer reversals of their fortunes.

1794 The United States and Britain signed the Jay Treaty.

1810 August von Willich, Brig Gen, U.S., born.

1811 John Ancrum Winslow, naval officer, U.S., born.

1827 Isaac Munroe St John, Brig Gen, C.S.A., born.

1813 Capt. David Porter took formal possession of Nuku Hiva, one of the Marquesas Islands, but the act was not recognized by the U.S. government. :oops:

1831 James A. Garfield, the 20th president of the United States, was born in Orange, Ohio.
Couvi wrote:There is a recently published book on James A Garfield entitled; Destiny of the Republic: A Tale of Madness, Medicine and the Murder of a President, by Candice Millard, that is excellent. His medical care was so bad that his assassin tried to claim that he wasn't responsible for Garfield’s death because he had only shot him. He claimed, unsuccessfully I might add, that Garfield’s doctors killed him. Were it not for the fact that a good man died, it would be a comedy. It is an excellent read.

President Garfield rose to the rank of Major General in the American Civil War.

1835 Fitzhugh Lee, Maj Gen, C.S.A., born.

1863 President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address as he dedicated a national cemetery at the site of the Civil War battlefield in Pennsylvania. The now legendary speech was shockingly brief by the standards of the day, which routinely featured very long speeches, which were regarded as a species of entertainment, and thereby caught those gathered to listen to it off guard and unprepared to extend accolades for the address. Lincoln, therefore, did not realize at the time the impact of the speech, as the crowd was largely silent.
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
1866 Vancouver Island becomes part of British Columbia due to financial crisis.

1868 The Bear River City Riot occurred in which parties supporting a lynched murder suspect and those supporting the lynching rioted. The town Marshall bravely stood his ground against both sides, but there was serious destruction in the town and sixteen people died. Cavalry was dispatched from Ft. Bridger to restore order.

1893 Mao Tse-Tung/Mao Zedong, Communist Chinese dictator with bad oral hygiene, and a bad sartorial sense, responsible for the deaths of millions of Chinese, born.

1897 Quentin Roosevelt, U.S. Army airman killed in action in France, born.

1911 New York received the first Marconi wireless transmission from Italy.

1913 Irish Citizen Army is formed

1917 Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was born in Allahabad.

1919 The Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles.

1942 Russian forces launched a winter offensive against the Germans along the Don front during World War II.

1942 French forces at Medjez el Bab, Tunisia hold off the German attacks and are reinforced by British and American troops.

1942 US troops coming from Pongani, New Guinea begin attack well fortified Japanese positions at Buna.

1943 CG Air Station at Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn, New York, designated as helicopter training base.

1943 Germans liquidate Janowska concentration camp in Lemberg (Lviv), western Ukraine, murdering at least 6,000 Jews after a failed uprising and mass escape attempt.

1944 US 9th Army defeat a counterattack by German forces and occupy Geilenkirchen, north of Aachen. US 3rd Army completes the encirclement of Metz. French 1st Army reaches Belfort and the Swiss border north of Basle.

1944 It is estimated that the cost of the war is now about $250 million per day for the United States.

1950 General Eisenhower became supreme commander of NATO.

1953 Vice President Richard Nixon visited Hanoi in French Indochina.

1959 Ford Motor Co. announced it was halting production of the Edsel. :oops:

1962 Fidel Castro accepted the removal of Soviet weapons.

1967 The Senate Foreign Relations Committee unanimously passes a resolution to curb the commitment of U.S. armed forces in South Vietnam and a resolution urging the President Johnson to take the initiative to have the Vietnamese conflict brought before the United Nations Security Council.

1969 Apollo 12 astronauts Charles "Pete" Conrad and Alan Bean made man's second landing on the moon.

1971 Cambodia appeals to South Vietnam for help as communist forces move closer to Phnom Penh, the capitol, and the dominoes begin to fall.

1977 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel.

1985 President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev met for the first time as they began a summit in Geneva.

Congressional Medals of Honor for action on this day:

CROMWELL, JOHN PHILIP: World War Two. Posthumous award. Captain, U.S. Navy. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as Commander of a Submarine Coordinated Attack Group with Flag in the U.S.S. Sculpin, during the 9th War Patrol of that vessel in enemy-controlled waters off Truk Island, 19 November 1943. Undertaking this patrol prior to the launching of our first large-scale offensive in the Pacific, Capt. Cromwell, alone of the entire Task Group, possessed secret intelligence information of our submarine strategy and tactics, scheduled Fleet movements and specific attack plans. Constantly vigilant and precise in carrying out his secret orders, he moved his underseas flotilla inexorably forward despite savage opposition and established a line of submarines to southeastward of the main Japanese stronghold at Truk. Cool and undaunted as the submarine, rocked and battered by Japanese depth charges, sustained terrific battle damage and sank to an excessive depth, he authorized the Sculpin to surface and engage the enemy in a gunfight, thereby providing an opportunity for the crew to abandon ship. Determined to sacrifice himself rather than risk capture and subsequent danger of revealing plans under Japanese torture or use of drugs, he stoically remained aboard the mortally wounded vessel as she plunged to her death. Preserving the security of his mission, at the cost of his own life, he had served his country as he had served the Navy, with deep integrity and an uncompromising devotion to duty. His great moral courage in the face of certain death adds new luster to the traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.

FOSS, JOSEPH JACOB: World War Two. Captain, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Marine Fighting Squadron 121, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. Place and date: Over Guadalcanal, 9 October to 19 November 1942, 15 and 23 January 1943. Citation: For outstanding heroism and courage above and beyond the call of duty as executive officer of Marine Fighting Squadron 121, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, at Guadalcanal. Engaging in almost daily combat with the enemy from 9 October to 19 November 1942, Capt. Foss personally shot down 23 Japanese planes and damaged others so severely that their destruction was extremely probable. In addition, during this period, he successfully led a large number of escort missions, skillfully covering reconnaissance, bombing, and photographic planes as well as surface craft. On 15 January 1943, he added 3 more enemy planes to his already brilliant successes for a record of aerial combat achievement unsurpassed in this war. Boldly searching out an approaching enemy force on 25 January, Capt. Foss led his 8 F-4F Marine planes and 4 Army P-38's into action and, undaunted by tremendously superior numbers, intercepted and struck with such force that 4 Japanese fighters were shot down and the bombers were turned back without releasing a single bomb. His remarkable flying skill, inspiring leadership, and indomitable fighting spirit were distinctive factors in the defense of strategic American positions on Guadalcanal.

Joe Foss was the top scoring Marine Corps fighter pilot of World War Two. The South Dakota native returned to South Dakota after the war and entered the South Dakota Air National Guard and was amongst those activated for the Korean War, during which he served as a Director of Operations and Training for the Central Air Defense Command. He became during that period a Brigadier General in the USAF. He became South Dakota's governor at age 39 in 1955. He was thereafter a Commissioner in the American Football League, host of The American Sportsman and president of the National Rifle Association.
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Joe Foss, left, Charles Lindbergh, right, 1944.

McGRAW, FRANCIS X.: World War Two. Posthumous award. Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company H, 26th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Schevenhutte, Germany, 19 November 1944. Citation: He manned a heavy machinegun emplaced in a foxhole near Schevenhutte, Germany, on 19 November 1944, when the enemy launched a fierce counterattack. Braving an intense hour-long preparatory barrage, he maintained his stand and poured deadly accurate fire into the advancing foot troops until they faltered and came to a halt. The hostile forces brought up a machinegun in an effort to dislodge him but were frustrated when he lifted his gun to an exposed but advantageous position atop a log, courageously stood up in his foxhole and knocked out the enemy weapon. A rocket blasted his gun from position, but he retrieved it and continued firing. He silenced a second machinegun and then made repeated trips over fire-swept terrain to replenish his ammunition supply. Wounded painfully in this dangerous task, he disregarded his injury and hurried back to his post, where his weapon was showered with mud when another rocket barely missed him. In the midst of the battle, with enemy troops taking advantage of his predicament to press forward, he calmly cleaned his gun, put it back into action and drove off the attackers. He continued to fire until his ammunition was expended, when, with a fierce desire to close with the enemy, he picked up a carbine, killed 1 enemy soldier, wounded another and engaged in a desperate firefight with a third until he was mortally wounded by a burst from a machine pistol. The extraordinary heroism and intrepidity displayed by Pvt. McGraw inspired his comrades to great efforts and was a major factor in repulsing the enemy attack.

MILLER, ANDREW: World War Two. Posthumous award. Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 377th Infantry, 95th Infantry Division. Place and date: From Woippy, France, through Metz to Kerprich Hemmersdorf, Germany, 1629 November 1944. Citation: For performing a series of heroic deeds from 1629 November 1944, during his company's relentless drive from Woippy, France, through Metz to Kerprich Hemmersdorf, Germany. As he led a rifle squad on 16 November at Woippy, a crossfire from enemy machineguns pinned down his unit. Ordering his men to remain under cover, he went forward alone, entered a building housing 1 of the guns and forced S Germans to surrender at bayonet point. He then took the second gun single-handedly by hurling grenades into the enemy position, killing 2, wounding 3 more, and taking 2 additional prisoners. At the outskirts of Metz the next day, when his platoon, confused by heavy explosions and the withdrawal of friendly tanks, retired, he fearlessly remained behind armed with an automatic rifle and exchanged bursts with a German machinegun until he silenced the enemy weapon. His quick action in covering his comrades gave the platoon time to regroup and carry on the fight. On 19 November S/Sgt. Miller led an attack on large enemy barracks. Covered by his squad, he crawled to a barracks window, climbed in and captured 6 riflemen occupying the room. His men, and then the entire company, followed through the window, scoured the building, and took 75 prisoners. S/Sgt. Miller volunteered, with 3 comrades, to capture Gestapo officers who were preventing the surrender of German troops in another building. He ran a gauntlet of machinegun fire and was lifted through a window. Inside, he found himself covered by a machine pistol, but he persuaded the 4 Gestapo agents confronting him to surrender. Early the next morning, when strong hostile forces punished his company with heavy fire, S/Sgt. Miller assumed the task of destroying a well-placed machinegun. He was knocked down by a rifle grenade as he climbed an open stairway in a house, but pressed on with a bazooka to find an advantageous spot from which to launch his rocket. He discovered that he could fire only from the roof, a position where he would draw tremendous enemy fire. Facing the risk, he moved into the open, coolly took aim and scored a direct hit on the hostile emplacement, wreaking such havoc that the enemy troops became completely demoralized and began surrendering by the score. The following day, in Metz, he captured 12 more prisoners and silenced an enemy machinegun after volunteering for a hazardous mission in advance of his company's position. On 29 November, as Company G climbed a hill overlooking Kerprich Hemmersdorf, enemy fire pinned the unit to the ground. S/Sgt. Miller, on his own initiative, pressed ahead with his squad past the company's leading element to meet the surprise resistance. His men stood up and advanced deliberately, firing as they went. Inspired by S/Sgt. Miller's leadership, the platoon followed, and then another platoon arose and grimly closed with the Germans. The enemy action was smothered, but at the cost of S/Sgt. Miller's life. His tenacious devotion to the attack, his gallant choice to expose himself to enemy action rather than endanger his men, his limitless bravery, assured the success of Company G.

RIVERS, RUBEN: World War Two. Posthumous award. Staff Sergeant. 761st Tank Battalion, U.S. Army. Born: Tecumseh, Oklahoma, 1921. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action during the 15-19 November 1944, toward Guebling, France. Though severely wounded in the leg, Sergeant Rivers refused medical treatment and evacuation, took command of another tank, and advanced with his company in Guebling the next day. Repeatedly refusing evacuation, Sergeant Rivers continued to direct his tank's fire at enemy positions through the morning of 19 November 1944. At dawn, Company A's tanks began to advance towards Bougaktroff, but were stopped by enemy fire. Sergeant Rivers, joined by another tank, opened fire on the enemy tanks, covering company A as they withdrew. While doing so, Sergeant River's tank was hit, killing him and wounding the crew. Staff Sergeant Rivers' fighting spirit and daring leadership were an inspiration to his unit and exemplify the highest traditions of military service.

BELCHER, TED: Vietnam. Posthumous award.Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Plei Djerang, Republic of Vietnam, 19 November 1966. Entered service at: Huntington, W . Va. Born: 21 July 1924, Accoville, W . Va. Citation: Distinguishing himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life. Sgt. Belcher's unit was engaged in a search and destroy mission with Company B, 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry, the Battalion Reconnaissance Platoon and a special forces company of civilian irregular defense group personnel. As a squad leader of the 2d Platoon of Company C, Sgt. Belcher was leading his men when they encountered a bunker complex. The reconnaissance platoon, located a few hundred meters northwest of Company C, received a heavy volume of fire from well camouflaged snipers. As the 2d Platoon moved forward to assist the unit under attack, Sgt. Belcher and his squad, advancing only a short distance through the dense jungle terrain, met heavy and accurate automatic weapons and sniper fire. Sgt. Belcher and his squad were momentarily stopped by the deadly volume of enemy fire. He quickly gave the order to return fire and resume the advance toward the enemy. As he moved up with his men, a hand grenade landed in the midst of the sergeant's squad. Instantly realizing the immediate danger to his men, Sgt. Belcher, unhesitatingly and with complete disregard for his safety, lunged forward, covering the grenade with his body. Absorbing the grenade blast at the cost of his life, he saved his comrades from becoming casualties. Sgt. Belcher's profound concern for his fellow soldiers, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.

WATTERS, CHARLES JOSEPH: Vietnam. Posthumous award. Chaplain (Maj.), U .S. Army, Company A, 173d Support Battalion, 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Near Dak To Province, Republic of Vietnam, 19 November 1967. Entered service at: Fort Dix, N.J. Born: 17 January 1927, Jersey City, N.J. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Chaplain Watters distinguished himself during an assault in the vicinity of Dak To. Chaplain Watters was moving with one of the companies when it engaged a heavily armed enemy battalion. As the battle raged and the casualties mounted, Chaplain Watters, with complete disregard for his safety, rushed forward to the line of contact. Unarmed and completely exposed, he moved among, as well as in front of the advancing troops, giving aid to the wounded, assisting in their evacuation, giving words of encouragement, and administering the last rites to the dying. When a wounded paratrooper was standing in shock in front of the assaulting forces, Chaplain Watters ran forward, picked the man up on his shoulders and carried him to safety. As the troopers battled to the first enemy entrenchment, Chaplain Watters ran through the intense enemy fire to the front of the entrenchment to aid a fallen comrade. A short time later, the paratroopers pulled back in preparation for a second assault. Chaplain Watters exposed himself to both friendly and enemy fire between the 2 forces in order to recover 2 wounded soldiers. Later, when the battalion was forced to pull back into a perimeter, Chaplain Watters noticed that several wounded soldiers were Lying outside the newly formed perimeter. Without hesitation and ignoring attempts to restrain him, Chaplain Watters left the perimeter three times in the face of small arms, automatic weapons, and mortar fire to carry and to assist the injured troopers to safety. Satisfied that all of the wounded were inside the perimeter, he began aiding the medics--applying field bandages to open wounds, obtaining and serving food and water, giving spiritual and mental strength and comfort. During his ministering, he moved out to the perimeter from position to position redistributing food and water, and tending to the needs of his men. Chaplain Watters was giving aid to the wounded when he himself was mortally wounded. Chaplain Watters' unyielding perseverance and selfless devotion to his comrades was in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.

Chaplain Watters had entered the service as a Catholic Chaplain for the New Jersey Air National Guard in 1962. He was a pilot himself but he entered the Regular Army, rather than the USAF, as a Chaplain in 1964.

Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:

Samuel MEEKOSHA: World War One. Corporal. 1/6th Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment (The Prince of Wales's Own), British Army. Citation: On 19 November 1915 near the Yser, France, Corporal Meekosha was with a platoon of about 20 NCOs and men holding an isolated trench. During a very heavy bombardment six of the platoon were killed and seven wounded, while the rest were more or less buried. When there were no senior NCOs left in action Corporal Meekosha took command, sent for help and in spite of more big shells falling within 20 yards of him, continued to dig out the wounded and buried men in full view of and at close range from the enemy. He was assisted by Privates Johnson, Sayers and Wlkinson who were all awarded the DCM. Their courage saved at least four lives.

Meekosha was intensely private and changed his last name to Ingham, from his mother's maiden name Cunningham, in 1942 so as to be more anonymous. He was at that time serving as an officer in the Yorkshire Regiment and receiving frequent queries about whether he was the World War One VC recipient.

Richard BELL-DAVIES: World War One. Squadron Commander in 3 Squadron, Royal Naval Air Service. Citation: On the 19th November these two officers carried out an air attack on Ferrijik Junction. Flight Sub-Lieutenant Smylie's machine was received by very heavy fire and brought down. The pilot planed down over the station, releasing all his bombs except one, which failed to drop, simultaneously at the station from a very low altitude. Thence he continued his descent into the marsh. On alighting he saw the one unexploded bomb, and set fire to his machine, knowing that the bomb would ensure its destruction. He then proceeded towards Turkish territory. At this moment he perceived Squadron-Commander Davies descending, and fearing that he would come down near the burning machine and thus risk destruction from the bomb, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Smylie ran back and from a short distance exploded the bomb by means of a pistol bullet. Squadron-Commander Davies descended at a safe distance from the burning machine, took up Sub-Lieutenant Smylie, in spite of the near approach of a party of the enemy, and returned to the aerodrome, a feat of airmanship that can seldom have been equaled for skill and gallantry.

This is regarded as the firs airborne search and rescue mission in history.
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Wed Nov 20, 2013 7:23 am

November 20

Today is Revolution Day in Mexico.
The Marriage of Queen Elizabeth II is commemorated in the UK.

63 St. Paul is shipwrecked at Malta.

284 Diocletian becomes Roman Emperor.

869 Danes defeat King Edmund of East Anglia at the Battle of Thetford/Hoxne.

1194 Palermo conquered by Emperor Henry VI.

1256 The Mongols under Hulugu Khan capture Maymum-Dis, cave fortress of the Assassins.

1272 Edward I "Edward Longshanks", "The Hammer of the Scots", proclaimed King of England.

1571 Clan Gordon defeats Clan Forbes at the Battle of Crabstane.

1620 Peregrine White was born aboard the Mayflower in Massachusetts Bay - the first child born of English parents in present-day New England.

1775 Trois-Rivières falls to Montgomery's American troops the day after Guy Carleton reaches Quebec.

1789 New Jersey became the first state to ratify the Bill of Rights.

1817 Florida Indians were attacked by white settlers, retaliating for Indian raids against them beginning the First Seminole War.

1830 Patrick Henry Jones, Brig Gen, U.S., born.

1836 John Thomas Croxton, Brig Gen, U.S., born.

1866 First national convention of the Grand Army of the Republic.

GAR Memorial in Casper Wyoming:

http://warmonument.blogspot.com/2011/02 ... asper.html

1868 Ft. Omaha founded in Nebraska.

1871 John and David McDougall become the first farmers in Alberta.

1901 The North West Mounted Police went on the alert in the Yukon due to rumors that the Order of the Midnight Sun, an order of miners, planned on raising an army in Alaska and invading the territory.

1903 Tom Horn hanged for the murder of Willie Nickell. He was actually hung with the rope he made, like the popular proverb, as he braided the rope while serving time waiting for his execution.

1910 Francico Madero declares a revolution in Mexico.

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Madero, an unlikely revolutionary, declared his revolution in the aftermath of election fraud, in which he had stood for election against Mexican dictator Porfirio Diaz. Diaz, who had ,declared in an interview with an Ameican journalist in 1908 that "I have no desire to continue in the Presidency. This nation is ready for her ultimate life of freedom." Madero took him at his word and ran against him. Diaz did not, apparently, mean it and the election was corrupt as a result.

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Madero's revolution was a success in that Diaz fled the country in 1911. He died in France in 1915, but Madero died well before him, as he was assassinated by those loyal to Gen. Huerta, who had no sympathy with Madero's views.

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Diaz's long life was one that featured many interesting turns. He joined the Mexican army in the first instance in order to fight against the United States in the Mexican War. He lead guerrillas against Santa Ana upon his return to Mexico. He fought the French with Juarez but was an opponent, sometimes a revolutionary, against Juarez thereafter. He came to rule Mexico in 1877 by popular election, and ironically stepped down after one term having run on that platform. He ran again in 1884 and remained in power until the revolution. While he ultimately was toppled in a revolution, his authoritarian rule of Mexico was the first real period of peace in Mexico since the revolution against Spain, and the country generally prospered. Had he stepped down, as he had indicated he was willing to do, he would be well remembered today.

Heurta would die in El Paso Texas, in exile, in 1916, where he was under house arrest after having been detected negotiating with the Germans for arms in violation of the Neutrality Act.

Of note here, the involvement in the US in the Mexican Revolution proved to be almost inevitable. The border region was chosen by participants in both sides as a place of refuge, to include both the humble and the conspiratory. Madero, Villa, and Huerta all chose the US as a place of refuge, and a place to base themselves in the hope to return to Mexico and achieve power. Tensions on the US border started with the revolution being declared in 1910, and as early as the first day of the revolution Mexican authorities were assuring the US not to have worries. Tensions would last long after World War One, and the cross border action that started before the war would continue on briefly after the war.

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1917 Robert C. Byrd, the longest-serving senator in U.S. history, was born Cornelius Calvin Sale Jr. in North Wilkesboro, N.C.

1917 The first tank offensive occurs at Cambrai when British tanks shatter the German lines on the Western Front.

1917 The Battle of Cambrai sees the Fort Garry Horse in mounted action. See today's VC's.

1917 Ukraine is declared a republic.

1920 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Woodrow Wilson.

1926 The funeral for Secretary of War Good took place.

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1939 Police are ordered to arrest all Gypsies in Germany and transport them to concentration camps.

1940 Hungary becomes a signatory of the Tripartite Pact.

1942 British Eighth Army recaptures Banghazi, Lybia.

1942 NHL abolishes regular season overtime until World War II is over.

1943 The Second Marine Div lands on Betio, Tarawa, while 27th Inf Div lands on Makin.

1944 The blackout ends in London as the lights of Piccadilly, the Strand and Fleet Street are switched on.

1945 General of the Army George C. Marshall steps down, after 2272 days as Chief-of-Staff.

1945 Twenty five Nazi leaders went on trial before an international war crimes tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany.

1947 Princess Elizabeth, married Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh, in Westminster Abbey in London.

1956 USS Hartford, Farragut's Civil War flagship, sinks at her dockside, Norfolk, Va.

1962 President Kennedy lifted the U.S. naval blockade of Cuba, having been assured by Soviet Premier N.S. Khrushev that all Soviet missiles would be removed within 30 days.

1965 240 American troops were killed in fighting in the Ia Drang Valley of South Vietnam.

1975 Spain's Gen. Francisco Franco died.

1977 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat became the first Arab leader to address Israel's parliament.

1985 The first version of Microsoft's Windows operating system, Windows 1.0, was released.

1994 The Angolan government and UNITA rebels sign the Lusaka Protocol in Zambia, ending 19 years of civil war.

2003 Bombings occurs in Istanbul, Turkey, destroying the Turkish head office of HSBC Bank AS and the British consulate.

2008 The Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches its lowest level since 1997.

Congressional Medals of Honor for action on this day:

FALCONER, JOHN A.: Civil War. Corporal, Company A, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Sanders, Knoxville, Tenn., 20 November 1863. Citation: Conducted the "burning party" of his regiment at the time a charge was made on the enemy's picket line, and burned the house which had sheltered the enemy's sharpshooters, thus insuring success to a hazardous enterprise.

HADLEY, CORNELIUS M.: Civil War. Sergeant, Company F, 9th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At siege of Knoxville, Tenn., 20 November 1863. Citation: With one companion, voluntarily carried through the enemy's lines important dispatches from Gen. Grant to Gen. Burnside, then besieged within Knoxville, and brought back replies, his comrade's horse being killed and the man taken prisoner.

KELLEY, ANDREW J.: Civil War. Private, Company E, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Knoxville, Tenn., 20 November 1863. Citation: Having voluntarily accompanied a small party to destroy buildings within the enemy's lines whence sharpshooters had been firing, disregarded an order to retire, remained and completed the firing of the buildings, thus insuring their total destruction; this at the imminent risk of his life from the fire of the advancing enemy.

SHEPARD, IRWIN: Civil War. Corporal, Company E, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Knoxville, Tenn. 20 November 1863. Entered service at: Chelsea, Mich. Citation: Having voluntarily accompanied a small party to destroy buildings within the enemy's lines, whence sharpshooters had been firing, disregarded an order to retire, remained and completed the firing of the buildings, thus insuring their total destruction; this at the imminent risk of his life from the fire of the advancing enemy.

AUER, JOHN F.: Peacetime award. Ordinary Seaman Apprentice, U.S. Navy. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lancaster, Marseille, France, 20 November 1883. Jumping overboard, Auer rescued from drowning a French lad who had fallen into the sea from a stone pier astern of the ship.

GILLICK, MATTHEW: Peacetime award. Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Lancaster at Marseille, France, 20 November 1883. Jumping overboard from the Lancaster, Gillick rescued from drowning a French lad who had fallen into the sea from a stone pier astern of the ship.

WETHERBY, JOHN C.: Philippine Insurrection. Private, Company L, 4th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Imus, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 20 November 1899. Citation: While carrying important orders on the battlefield, was desperately wounded and, being unable to walk, crawled far enough to deliver his orders.

BORDELON, WILLIAM JAMES: World War Two. Posthumous award. Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Citation: For valorous and gallant conduct above and beyond the call of duty as a member of an assault engineer platoon of the 1st Battalion, 18th Marines, tactically attached to the 2d Marine Division, in action against the Japanese-held atoll of Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands on 20 November 1943. Landing in the assault waves under withering enemy fire which killed all but 4 of the men in his tractor, S/Sgt. Bordelon hurriedly made demolition charges and personally put 2 pillboxes out of action. Hit by enemy machinegun fire just as a charge exploded in his hand while assaulting a third position, he courageously remained in action and, although out of demolition, provided himself with a rifle and furnished fire coverage for a group of men scaling the seawall. Disregarding his own serious condition, he unhesitatingly went to the aid of one of his demolition men, wounded and calling for help in the water, rescuing this man and another who had been hit by enemy fire while attempting to make the rescue. Still refusing first aid for himself, he again made up demolition charges and single-handedly assaulted a fourth Japanese machinegun position but was instantly killed when caught in a final burst of fire from the enemy. S/Sgt. Bordelon's great personal valor during a critical phase of securing the limited beachhead was a contributing factor in the ultimate occupation of the island, and his heroic determination throughout 3 days of violent battle reflects the highest credit upon the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.

BRILES, HERSCHEL F.: World War Two. Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Co. C, 899th Tank Destroyer Battalion. Place and date: Near Scherpenseel, Germany, 20 November 1944. Citation: He was leading a platoon of destroyers across an exposed slope near Scherpenseel, Germany, on 20 November 1944, when they came under heavy enemy artillery fire. A direct hit was scored on 1 of the vehicles, killing 1 man, seriously wounding 2 others, and setting the destroyer afire. With a comrade, S/Sgt. Briles left the cover of his own armor and raced across ground raked by artillery and small-arms fire to the rescue of the men in the shattered destroyer. Without hesitation, he lowered himself into the burning turret, removed the wounded and then extinguished the fire. From a position he assumed the next morning, he observed hostile infantrymen advancing. With his machinegun, he poured such deadly fire into the enemy ranks that an entire pocket of 55 Germans surrendered, clearing the way for a junction between American units which had been held up for 2 days. Later that day, when another of his destroyers was hit by a concealed enemy tank, he again left protection to give assistance. With the help of another soldier, he evacuated two wounded under heavy fire and, returning to the burning vehicle, braved death from exploding ammunition to put out the flames. By his heroic initiative and complete disregard for personal safety, S/Sgt. Briles was largely responsible for causing heavy enemy casualties, forcing the surrender of 55 Germans, making possible the salvage of our vehicles, and saving the lives of wounded comrades.

MABRY, GEORGE L., JR.: World War Two. Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 2d Battalion, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division Place and date: Hurtgen Forest near Schevenhutte, Germany, 20 November 1944. Citation: He was commanding the 2d Battalion, 8th Infantry, in an attack through the Hurtgen Forest near Schevenhutte, Germany, on 20 November 1944. During the early phases of the assault, the leading elements of his battalion were halted by a minefield and immobilized by heavy hostile fire. Advancing alone into the mined area, Col. Mabry established a safe route of passage. He then moved ahead of the foremost scouts, personally leading the attack, until confronted by a boobytrapped double concertina obstacle. With the assistance of the scouts, he disconnected the explosives and cut a path through the wire. Upon moving through the opening, he observed 3 enemy in foxholes whom he captured at bayonet point. Driving steadily forward he paced the assault against 3 log bunkers which housed mutually supported automatic weapons. Racing up a slope ahead of his men, he found the initial bunker deserted, then pushed on to the second where he was suddenly confronted by 9 onrushing enemy. Using the butt of his rifle, he felled 1 adversary and bayoneted a second, before his scouts came to his aid and assisted him in overcoming the others in hand-to-hand combat. Accompanied by the riflemen, he charged the third bunker under pointblank small arms fire and led the way into the fortification from which he prodded 6 enemy at bayonet point. Following the consolidation of this area, he led his battalion across 300 yards of fire-swept terrain to seize elevated ground upon which he established a defensive position which menaced the enemy on both flanks, and provided his regiment a firm foothold on the approach to the Cologne Plain. Col. Mabry's superlative courage, daring, and leadership in an operation of major importance exemplify the finest characteristics of the military service.

CRESCENZ, MICHAEL J.: Vietnam War. Posthumous award. Corporal, U.S. Army, Company A, 4th Battalion, 31st Infantry, 196th Infantry Brigade, Americal Division. Place and date: Hiep Duc Valley area, Republic of Vietnam, 20 November 1968. Entered service at: Philadelphia, PA. Born: 14 January 1949, Philadelphia, Pa. Citation: Cpl. Crescenz distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action while serving as a rifleman with Company A. In the morning his unit engaged a large, well-entrenched force of the North Vietnamese Army whose initial burst of fire pinned down the lead squad and killed the 2 point men, halting the advance of Company A. Immediately, Cpl. Crescenz left the relative safety of his own position, seized a nearby machine gun and, with complete disregard for his safety, charged 100 meters up a slope toward the enemy's bunkers which he effectively silenced, killing the 2 occupants of each. Undaunted by the withering machine gun fire around him, Cpl. Crescenz courageously moved forward toward a third bunker which he also succeeded in silencing, killing 2 more of the enemy and momentarily clearing the route of advance for his comrades. Suddenly, intense machine gun fire erupted from an unseen, camouflaged bunker. Realizing the danger to his fellow soldiers, Cpl. Crescenz disregarded the barrage of hostile fire directed at him and daringly advanced toward the position. Assaulting with his machine gun, Cpl. Crescenz was within 5 meters of the bunker when he was mortally wounded by the fire from the enemy machine gun. As a direct result of his heroic actions, his company was able to maneuver freely with minimal danger and to complete its mission, defeating the enemy. Cpl. Crescenz's bravery and extraordinary heroism at the cost of his life are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.

LOZADA, CARLOS JAMES: Vietnam War. Posthumous award. Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 503d Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade. place and date: Dak To, Republic of Vietnam, 20 November 1967. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Lozada, U.S. Army, distinguished himself at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in the battle of Dak To. While serving as a machine gunner with 1st platoon, Company A, Pfc. Lozada was part of a 4-man early warning outpost, located 35 meters from his company's lines. At 1400 hours a North Vietnamese Army company rapidly approached the outpost along a well defined trail. Pfc. Lozada alerted his comrades and commenced firing at the enemy who were within 10 meters of the outpost. His heavy and accurate machine gun fire killed at least 20 North Vietnamese soldiers and completely disrupted their initial attack. Pfc. Lozada remained in an exposed position and continued to pour deadly fire upon the enemy despite the urgent pleas of his comrades to withdraw. The enemy continued their assault, attempting to envelop the outpost. At the same time enemy forces launched a heavy attack on the forward west flank of Company A with the intent to cut them off from their battalion. Company A was given the order to withdraw. Pfc. Lozada apparently realized that if he abandoned his position there would be nothing to hold back the surging North Vietnamese soldiers and that the entire company withdrawal would be jeopardized. He called for his comrades to move back and that he would stay and provide cover for them. He made this decision realizing that the enemy was converging on 3 sides of his position and only meters away, and a delay in withdrawal meant almost certain death. Pfc. Lozada continued to deliver a heavy, accurate volume of suppressive fire against the enemy until he was mortally wounded and had to be carried during the withdrawal. His heroic deed served as an example and an inspiration to his comrades throughout the ensuing 4-day battle. Pfc. Lozada's actions are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.

Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:

Wilbraham LENNOX Crimean War. Lieutenant. Corps of Royal Engineers, British Army. Citation: On 20 November 1854 at Sevastopol, in the Crimea, Lieutenant Lennox, with a working party of 100 men entrenched themselves in rifle-pits which had just been captured from the enemy. Despite extreme exposure to attack, they successfully repulsed all attempts to dislodge them during the night.

William CUNINGHAME Crimean War. Lieutenant. 1st Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own). Citation: On 20 November 1854 at Sebastopol, the Crimea, he, with another lieutenant (Claud Thomas Bourchier) was with a party detailed to drive the Russians from some rifle pits. Advancing on the pits after dark they launched a surprise attack and drove the Russian riflemen from their cover, but in the fierce fighting which ensued the officer in command of the party was killed. The two lieutenants, however, maintained their advantage, withstood all attacks from the enemy during the night and held the position until relieved next day.

Claude BOURCHIER : Crimean War. Lieutenant. 1st Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own). Citation: On 20 November 1854 at Sebastopol, Crimea, Lieutenant Bourchier, with another lieutenant (William James Montgomery Cuninghame) was with a party detailed to drive the Russians from some rifle pits. Advancing on the pits after dark they launched a surprise attack and drove the Russian riflemen from their cover, but in the fierce fighting which ensued the officer in command of the party was killed. The two lieutenants, however, maintained their advantage, withstood all attacks from the enemy during the night and held the position until relieved next day.

William TEMPLE New Zealand Wars. Assistant Surgeon. Royal Regiment of Artillery. Citation: For gallant conduct during the assault on the enemy's position at Rangiriri, in New Zealand, on the 20th of November last, in exposing their lives to imminent danger, in crossing the entrance of the Maori keep, at a point upon which the enemy had concentrated their fire, with a view to render assistance to the wounded, and, more especially to the late Captain Mercer, of the Royal Artillery. Lieutenant Pickard, it is stated, crossed, and re-crossed the parapet, to procure water for the wounded, when none of the men could be induced to perform this service, the space over which he traversed being exposed to a crossfire; and testimony is borne to the calmness displayed by him, and Assistant-Surgeon Temple, under the trying circumstances in which they were placed.

Arthur PICKARD New Zealand Wars. Lieutenant. Royal Reigment of Artillery. Citation: For gallant conduct during the assault on the enemy's position at Rangiriri, in New Zealand, on the 20th of November last, in exposing their lives to imminent danger, in crossing the entrance of the Maori keep, at a point upon which the enemy had concentrated their fire, with a view to render assistance to the wounded, and, more especially to the late Captain Mercer, of the Royal Artillery. Lieutenant Pickard, it is stated, crossed, and re-crossed the parapet, to procure water for the wounded, when none of the men could be induced to perform this service, the space over which he traversed being exposed to a crossfire; and testimony is borne to the calmness displayed by him, and Assistant-Surgeon Temple, under the trying circumstances in which they were placed.

Thomas RENDLE: World War One. Bandsman. 1st Battalion, The Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, British Army. Citation: On 20 November 1914 near Wulverghem, Belgium, Bandsman Rendle attended to the wounded under very heavy rifle and shell fire and rescued men from the trenches in which they had been buried from the blowing in of the parapets by the fire of the enemy's heavy howitzers.

Samuel WALLACE: World War One. Lieutenant. 'C' Battery 63rd Brigade, Royal Field Artillery, British Army. Citation: On 20 November 1917 at Gonnelieu, France, when the personnel of Lieutenant Wallace's battery were reduced to five, having lost their commander and five sergeants, and were surrounded by enemy infantry, he maintained the firing of the guns by swinging the trails close together, the men running and loading from gun to gun. He was in action for eight hours firing the whole time and inflicting severe casualties on the enemy. Then, owing to the exhausted state of his men, he withdrew when the infantry supports arrived, taking with him all essential gun parts and all wounded.

Richard WAIN: World War One. Posthumous award. Captain. A' Battalion, Tank Corps, British ArmyCitation: For most conspicuous bravery in command of a section of Tanks. During an attack the Tank in which he was, was disabled by a direct hit near an enemy strong point which was holding up the attack. Capt. Wain and one man, both seriously wounded, were the only survivors. Though bleeding profusely from his wounds, he refused the attention of stretcher-bearers, rushed from behind the Tank with a Lewis gun, and captured the strong point, taking about half the garrison prisoners. Although his wounds were very serious he picked up a rifle and continued to fire at the retiring enemy until he received a fatal wound in the head. It was due to the valour displayed by Capt. Wain that the infantry were able to advance.

Harcus Strachan World War One. Lieutenant. The Fort Garry Horse. Canadian Expeditionary Force. Citation: On 20 November 1917 at Masnières, France, Lieutenant Strachan took command of a mounted squadron of Garrys when the squadron leader, approaching the German front line at a gallop, was killed. Lieutenant Strachan led the squadron through the enemy line of machine-gun posts and then, with the surviving men, led the charge on the German battery, killing seven of the gunners with his sword. When all the gunners were killed and the battery silenced, he rallied his men and fought his way back at night on foot through the enemy's lines, bringing all unwounded men safely in, together with 15 prisoners.

Strachan commanded the 1st Battalion, Edmonton Fusiliers during the Second World War. After the war he retired and moved to Vancouver. The Fort Garry Horse conduct a parade every year on this date in honor of his winning the Victoria Cross.


Charles SPACKMAN: World War One. Sergeant. 1st Battalion, Border Regiment, British Army. Citation: On 20 November 1917 at Marcoing, France, the leading company was checked by heavy fire from a gun mounted on a position which covered the approaches. Sergeant Spackman, realising that it would be impossible for the troops to advance, went through heavy fire to the gun, where he succeeded in killing all but one of the gun crew and then captured the gun.

Albert SHEPHERD: World War One. Private 12th (S) Battalion, King's Royal Rifle Corps, British Army. Citation: On 20 November 1917 at Villers Plouich, France, when his company was held up by a machine-gun at point-blank range, Private Shepherd volunteered to rush the gun and although ordered not to, rushed forward and threw a Mills bomb killing two gunners and capturing the gun. The company, continuing its advance, came under heavy enfilade* machine-gun fire and when the last officer and NCO had become casualties, Private Shepherd took command of the company, ordered the men to lie down and went back some 70 yards to get the help of a tank. He then returned to his company and led them to their last objective.

Robert McBEATH: World War One. Lance-corporal. 1/5th Battalion, The Seaforth Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs, Duke of Albany's) of the British Army. 20 November 1917. Citation: For most conspicuous bravery when with his company in attack and approaching the final objective, a nest of enemy machine-guns in the western outskirts of a village opened fire both on his own unit and on the unit to the right. The advance was checked and heavy casualties resulted. When a Lewis gun was called for to deal with these machine-guns, L/Corpl. McBeath volunteered for the duty, and immediately moved off alone with a Lewis gun and his revolver. He located one of the machine-guns in action, and worked his way towards it, shooting the gunner with his revolver at 20 yards range. Finding several of the hostile machine-guns in action, he, with the assistance of a tank, attacked them and drove the gunners to ground in a deep dugout. L/Corpl. McBeath, regardless of all danger, rushed in after them, shot an enemy who opposed him on the steps, and drove the remainder of the garrison out of the dug-out, capturing three officers and 30 men. There were in all five machine-guns mounted round the dug-out, and by putting them out of action he cleared the way for the advance of both units. The conduct of L/Corpl. McBeath throughout three days of severe fighting was beyond praise.

John SHERWOOD-KELLY: World War One. Lieutenant-Colonel. Norfolk Regiment, British Army. Citation: On 20 November 1917 during the Battle of Cambrai at Marcoing, France, when a party of men were held upon the near side of a canal by heavy rifle fire, Lieutenant Colonel Sherwood Kelly at once ordered covering fire, personally led his leading company across the canal and then reconnoitered, under heavy fire, the high ground held by the enemy. He took a Lewis gun team, forced his way through obstacles and covered the advance of his battalion, enabling them to capture the position. Later he led a charge against some pits from which heavy fire was coming, capturing five machine-guns and 46 prisoners.

Sherwood-Kelly had extensive military service and had first entered the service in the Cape Mounted Police at age 16.

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Thu Nov 21, 2013 7:02 am

November 21

53 BC Marcus Licinius Crassus beheaded by the Parthians.

1789 North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.

1818 Czar Alexander I proposes a Jewish state in Palestine.

1865 Platte Bridge Station renamed Ft. Caspar in honor of the late Caspar Collins, Lieutenant 11th Ohio Cavalry, who had lost his life at the Battle of Platte Bridge Station earlier that year.

1877 Inventor Thomas A. Edison unveiled the phonograph.

1895 The Federal District Court, sitting in Cheyenne, held that the Treaty of 1868 exempted Indians from the State's game laws. The decision would later be reversed.

1914 Battle of the Kolubara begins in which the Serbs defeat the second Austrian invasion by Dec 15th.

1918 German ammunition trains explode in Hamont, Belgium killing 1,750 people.

1918 The German High Seas Fleet is interned at Scapa Flo, Scotland.

1920 Mussolini's Blackshirts kill 11 political opponents in Bologna.

1920 "Bloody Sunday" in the Anglo Irish War. British security forces open fire at a football game in Dublin, killed about fifteen people, in a raid brought about in response to the IRA assassination of fourteen British policemen or agents the same day.

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The Cairo Gang of British agents who were mostly killed at the start of what would turn out to be an exceptionally bloody and controversial day in the Anglo Irish War.

1922 Rebecca L. Felton of Georgia was sworn in as the first woman to serve in the U.S. Senate.

1937 Hitler demands lebensraum in foreign colonies in a speech.

1940 Lieutenant General Bernard Law Montgomery is put in charge of the V Corps of the British Army.

1940 Ernest Hemingway and Martha Gellhorn were married in Cheyenne, Wyoming. The wedding took place at the Union Pacific Depot dining room.
http://patsrailhead.blogspot.com/2012/0 ... depot.html

1942 ALCAN Highway official opened.
Philip S wrote:I found this undated and unidentified full page WWII era advertisement at a Studebaker Car show last weekend. The men on horses are curious and certainly look “army.” I wonder who they were.

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Pat Holscher wrote:Image
1943 Operation Galvanic sees Marines in heavy fighting on Tarawa, while U.S. Army troops from the Federalized National Guard advance on Makin. Marines land on Abemama, seventy five miles SE of Tarawa.

1943 Goshen County' Wyoming's harvest declared a success due to the efforts of immigrant Mexican laborers and Prisoners of War. Attribution. Wyoming Historical Society's history calendar.

1946 The motion picture "The Best Years of Our Lives" premiers at the Astor Theater in New York City.

1957 The Department of Defense announced that F.E. Warren AFB would be the nation's first ICBM base.

1969 The Senate voted down the Supreme Court nomination of Clement F. Haynsworth.

1973 President Richard Nixon's attorney, J. Fred Buzhardt, revealed the existence of an 18 1/2-minute gap in one of the White House tape recordings related to Watergate.

1985 Former U.S. Navy intelligence analyst Jonathan Jay Pollard was arrested, accused of spying for Israel.

1989 The proceedings of Britain's House of Commons were televised live for the first time.

1991 The U.N. Security Council chose Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt to be secretary-general.

1995 The Dow Jones industrial average closed above 5,000 for the first time.

2001 A 94-year-old Connecticut woman died of inhalation anthrax, the last of five people killed in the anthrax attacks.

2002 NATO invited seven former communist countries to join the alliance: Slovenia, Slovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Bulgaria.

Congressional Medals of Honor awarded for action on this day:

CHANDRON, AUGUST: Peacetime award. Seaman Apprentice, Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 1866, France. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Quinnebaug, Alexandria, Egypt, on the morning of 21 November 1885. Jumping overboard from that vessel, Chandron, with the aid of Hugh Miller, boatswain's mate, rescued William Evans, ordinary seaman, from drowning.

MILLER, HUGH: Peacetime award. Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Quinnebaug, at Alexandria, Egypt, on the morning of 21 November 1885 and assisting in saving a shipmate from drowning.

HAWKINS, WILLIAM DEAN: World War Two. Posthumous award. First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps. Citation: For valorous and gallant conduct above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of a Scout Sniper Platoon attached to the Assault Regiment in action against Japanese-held Tarawa in the Gilbert Island, 20 and 21 November 1943. The first to disembark from the jeep lighter, 1st Lt. Hawkins unhesitatingly moved forward under heavy enemy fire at the end of the Betio Pier, neutralizing emplacements in coverage of troops assaulting the main beach positions. Fearlessly leading his men on to join the forces fighting desperately to gain a beachhead, he repeatedly risked his life throughout the day and night to direct and lead attacks on pillboxes and installations with grenades and demolitions. At dawn on the following day, 1st Lt. Hawkins resumed the dangerous mission of clearing the limited beachhead of Japanese resistance, personally initiating an assault on a hostile position fortified by S enemy machineguns, and, crawling forward in the face of withering fire, boldly fired pointblank into the loopholes and completed the destruction with grenades. Refusing to withdraw after being seriously wounded in the chest during this skirmish, 1st Lt. Hawkins steadfastly carried the fight to the enemy, destroying 3 more pillboxes before he was caught in a burst of Japanese shellfire and mortally wounded. His relentless fighting spirit in the face of formidable opposition and his exceptionally daring tactics served as an inspiration to his comrades during the most crucial phase of the battle and reflect the highest credit upon the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.

MINICK, JOHN W.: World War Two. Posthumous award. Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 121st Infantry, 8th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Hurtgen, Germany, 21 November 1944. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, in action involving actual conflict with the enemy on 21 November 1944, near Hurtgen, Germany. S/Sgt. Minick's battalion was halted in its advance by extensive minefields, exposing troops to heavy concentrations of enemy artillery and mortar fire. Further delay in the advance would result in numerous casualties and a movement through the minefield was essential. Voluntarily, S/Sgt. Minick led 4 men through hazardous barbed wire and debris, finally making his way through the minefield for a distance of 300 yards. When an enemy machinegun opened fire, he signaled his men to take covered positions, edged his way alone toward the flank of the weapon and opened fire, killing 2 members of the guncrew and capturing 3 others. Moving forward again, he encountered and engaged single-handedly an entire company killing 20 Germans and capturing 20, and enabling his platoon to capture the remainder of the hostile group. Again moving ahead and spearheading his battalion's advance, he again encountered machinegun fire. Crawling forward toward the weapon, he reached a point from which he knocked the weapon out of action. Still another minefield had to be crossed. Undeterred, S/Sgt. Minick advanced forward alone through constant enemy fire and while thus moving, detonated a mine and was instantly killed.

Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:

Harry PRENDERGAST: Indian Mutiny: Lieutenant. Madras Engineers, Madras Army. Citation: For conspicuous bravery on the 21st of November, 1857, at Mundisore, in saving the life of Lieutenant G. Dew, 14th Light Dragoons, at the risk of his own, by attempting to cut down a valaitee, who covered him (Lieutenant Dew) with his piece, from only a few paces to the rear. Lieutenant Prendergast was wounded in this affair by the discharge of the piece, and would probably have, been cut down, had not the rebel been killed by Major Orr. He also distinguished himself by his gallantry in the actions at Ratgurh and Betwa, when he was severely wounded. Major-General Sir Hugh Rose, in forwarding his recommendation of this Officer, states:

"Lieutenant Prendergast, Madras Engineers, was specially mentioned by Brigadier, now Sir Charles Stuart, for the gallant act at
Mundisore, when he was severely wounded; secondly, he was specially mentioned by me when acting voluntarily as my Aide-de-Camp in the Action before besieging Ragurh, on the Beena river, for gallant conduct. His horse was killed on that occasion. Thirdly, at the Action of 'the Betwa', he again voluntarily acted as my Aide-de-Camp, and distinguished himself by his bravery in the charge, which I made with Captain Need's Troop, Her Majesty's 14th Light Dragoons, against the left of the so-called Peishwa's Army, under Tantia Topee. He was severely.wounded on that occasion."

What was the Madras Army?

George GUNN : World War Two. Posthumous award. Second Lieutenant. 3rd Regiment Royal Horse Artillery, British Army. Citation: On 21 November 1941 at Sidi Rezegh, Libya, an attack by 60 German tanks was countered by the four anti-tank guns ("A Troop") under the command of Second Lieutenant Gunn.

During the engagement this officer drove from gun to gun in an unarmoured vehicle, encouraging his men, and when three of his guns were destroyed and the crew of the fourth, except the sergeant, were all dead or disabled, he took charge of this remaining weapon, the portee of which was alight. There was danger of the flames exploding the ammunition with which the portee was loaded, but he managed to fire 50 rounds from the QF 2 pounder gun and set two enemy tanks on fire before he himself was killed by being shot through the head.

John CAMPBELL: World War Two. Brigadier General. Royal Horse Artillery. British Army. Citation: The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the VICTORIA CROSS to Brigadier (acting) John Charles Campbell, DS0, MC (135944), Royal Horse Artillery,

in recognition of most conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty at Sidi Rezegh on the 21st and 22nd November, 1941.

On the 21st November Brigadier Campbell was commanding the troops, including one regiment of tanks, in the area of Sidi Rezegh ridge and the aerodrome. His small force holding this important ground was repeatedly attacked by large numbers of tanks and infantry. Wherever the situation was most difficult and the fighting hardest he was to be seen with his forward troops, either on his feet or in his open car. In this car he carried out several reconnaissances for counter-attacks by his tanks, whose senior officers had all become casualties early in the day. Standing in his car with a blue flag, this officer personally formed up tanks under close and intense fire from all natures of enemy weapons.

On the following day the enemy attacks were intensified and again Brigadier Campbell was always in the forefront of the heaviest fighting, encouraging his troops, staging counter-attacks with his remaining tanks and personally controlling the fire of his guns. On two occasions he himself manned a gun to replace casualties. During the final enemy attack on the 22nd November he was wounded, but continued most actively in the foremost positions, controlling the fire of batteries which inflicted heavy losses on enemy tanks at point blank range, and finally acted as loader to one of the guns himself.

Throughout these two days his magnificent example and his utter disregard of personal danger were an inspiration to his men and to all who saw him. His brilliant leadership was the direct cause of the very heavy casualties inflicted on the enemy. In spite of his wound he refused to be evacuated and remained with his command, where his outstanding bravery and consistent determination had a marked effect in maintaining the splendid fighting spirit of those under him.

John BEELEY: World War Two. Posthumous award.Rifleman. The King's Royal Rifle Corps, British Army. Citation: On 21 November 1941 at Sidi Rezegh, Libya, at an airfield being attacked by Rifleman Beeley's company, progress was held up by short range fire. All the officers of the company were wounded so, on his own initiative the rifleman ran forward over open ground, firing his Bren gun and at 20 yards range put an anti-tank gun and two machine-guns out of action. He was killed but his bravery inspired his comrades to further efforts to reach their objective, which was eventually captured, together with 100 prisoners.

RAMBAHADUR LIMBU: Indonesia. Lance-Corporal. 2nd Battalion, 10th Princess Mary's Own Gurkha Rifles. 21 November 1965. Citation: http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/ ... ments/4947
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Fri Nov 22, 2013 6:49 am

November 22

1542 New laws passed in Spain giving protection against the enslavement of Indians in America.

1718 English pirate Edward Teach, aka, "Blackbeard" was killed during a battle off the Virginia coast.

1805 Benjamin Huger, Maj Gen, C.S.A., born.

1812 Battle of Wild Cat Creek in the War of 1812.

1818 Samuel Gibbs French, Maj Gen, C.S.A., born.

1823 Nathan Kimball, Brig Gen, U.S., born.

1832 George Henry Chapman, Brig Gen, U.S., born.

1835 Frank Crawford Armstrong, Brig Gen, C.S.A., born.

1837 Canadian journalist and politician William Lyon Mackenzie calls for a rebellion against Great Britain in his essay "To the People of Upper Canada".

1858 Denver, Colorado is founded.

1864 Confederate forces under General John Bell Hood invades Tennessee in an attempt to draw General William T. Sherman's forces out of Georgia.

1867 Wilhelm Groener born in Ludwigsburg, Germany. In October 1918 he replaced General Erich Ludendorff as German quartermaster general upon his resignation.

1869 In Dumbarton, Scotland, the clipper Cutty Sark is launched. It is the only surviving clipper today.

1881 Enver Pasha, Young Turk, born.

1890 Charles de Gaulle was born in Lille, France.

1906 The SOS distress signal was adopted at the International Radio Telegraphic Convention in Berlin.

1915 Germany offers £1,000 for each of American passengers lost in "Lusitania". Offer refused by the United States.

1917 American mission under Colonel House leaves London for Paris.

1923 President Coolidge pardoned WW I German spy Lothar Witzke, who was sentenced to death for his WWI activities.

1935 Pan Am inaugurated the first airmail and passenger service across the Pacific with a San Francisco to Manila route. The plane was the China Clipper.
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1942 General Friedrich Paulus sends Adolf Hitler a telegram saying that the German 6th army is surrounded at Stalingrad.

1943 President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chinese leader Chiang Kai-Shek meet in Cairo, Egypt.

1943 RAF and RCAF start air bombing of Berlin.

1943 Lebanon gains independence from France.

1963 President John F. Kennedy assassinated in Dallas, TX.

1963 C. S. Lewis, writer, dies.

1967 The U.N. Security Council approved Resolution 242 calling for Israel to withdraw from territories it captured in 1967.

1968 The Beatles' "White Album" was released.

1972 The United States loses its first B-52 of the Vietnam War.

1975 Juan Carlos was proclaimed king of Spain. He would shepherd its reemergence as a democracy.

1990 Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher announces her resignation after 11 years as prime minister.

2005 The Microsoft video game console Xbox 360 went on sale.

2012 This is Thanksgiving Day for 2012.

Congressional Medals of Honor awarded for action on this day:

BONNYMAN, ALEXANDER, JR.: World War Two. Posthumous award. First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserves. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as Executive Officer of the 2d Battalion Shore Party, 8th Marines, 2d Marine Division, during the assault against enemy Japanese-held Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands, 20-22 November 1943. Acting on his own initiative when assault troops were pinned down at the far end of Betio Pier by the overwhelming fire of Japanese shore batteries, 1st Lt. Bonnyman repeatedly defied the blasting fury of the enemy bombardment to organize and lead the besieged men over the long, open pier to the beach and then, voluntarily obtaining flame throwers and demolitions, organized his pioneer shore party into assault demolitionists and directed the blowing of several hostile installations before the close of D-day. Determined to effect an opening in the enemy's strongly organized defense line the following day, he voluntarily crawled approximately 40 yards forward of our lines and placed demolitions in the entrance of a large Japanese emplacement as the initial move in his planned attack against the heavily garrisoned, bombproof installation which was stubbornly resisting despite the destruction early in the action of a large number of Japanese who had been inflicting heavy casualties on our forces and holding up our advance. Withdrawing only to replenish his ammunition, he led his men in a renewed assault, fearlessly exposing himself to the merciless slash of hostile fire as he stormed the formidable bastion, directed the placement of demolition charges in both entrances and seized the top of the bombproof position, flushing more than 100 of the enemy who were instantly cut down, and effecting the annihilation of approximately 150 troops inside the emplacement. Assailed by additional Japanese after he had gained his objective, he made a heroic stand on the edge of the structure, defending his strategic position with indomitable determination in the face of the desperate charge and killing 3 of the enemy before he fell, mortally wounded. By his dauntless fighting spirit, unrelenting aggressiveness and forceful leadership throughout 3 days of unremitting, violent battle, 1st Lt. Bonnyman had inspired his men to heroic effort, enabling them to beat off the counterattack and break the back of hostile resistance in that sector for an immediate gain of 400 yards with no further casualties to our forces in this zone. He gallantly gave his life for his country.

SHOUP, DAVID MONROE: World War Two. Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps, commanding officer of all Marine Corps troops on Betio Island, Tarawa Atoll, and Gilbert Islands, from 20 to 22 November 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of all Marine Corps troops in action against enemy Japanese forces on Betio Island, Tarawa Atoll, Gilbert Islands, from 20 to 22 November 1943. Although severely shocked by an exploding enemy shell soon after landing at the pier and suffering from a serious, painful leg wound which had become infected, Col. Shoup fearlessly exposed himself to the terrific and relentless artillery, machinegun, and rifle fire from hostile shore emplacements. Rallying his hesitant troops by his own inspiring heroism, he gallantly led them across the fringing reefs to charge the heavily fortified island and reinforce our hard-pressed, thinly held lines. Upon arrival on shore, he assumed command of all landed troops and, working without rest under constant, withering enemy fire during the next 2 days, conducted smashing attacks against unbelievably strong and fanatically defended Japanese positions despite innumerable obstacles and heavy casualties. By his brilliant leadership daring tactics, and selfless devotion to duty, Col. Shoup was largely responsible for the final decisive defeat of the enemy, and his indomitable fighting spirit reflects great credit upon the U.S. Naval Service .

LORING, CHARLES J., JR.: Korean War. Posthumous award. Major, U.S. Air Force, 80th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 8th Fighter-Bomber Wing. Place and date: Near Sniper Ridge, North Korea, 22 November 1952. itation: Maj. Loring distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While leading a night of 4 F-80 type aircraft on a close support mission, Maj. Loring was briefed by a controller to dive-bomb enemy gun positions which were harassing friendly ground troops. After verifying the location of the target, Maj. Loring rolled into his dive bomb run. Throughout the run, extremely accurate ground fire was directed on his aircraft. Disregarding the accuracy and intensity of the ground fire, Maj. Loring aggressively continued to press the attack until his aircraft was hit. At approximately 4,000 feet, he deliberately altered his course and aimed his diving aircraft at active gun emplacements concentrated on a ridge northwest of the briefed target, turned his aircraft 45 degrees to the left, pulled up in a deliberate, controlled maneuver, and elected to sacrifice his life by diving his aircraft directly into the midst of the enemy emplacements. His selfless and heroic action completely destroyed the enemy gun emplacement and eliminated a dangerous threat to United Nations ground forces. Maj. Loring's noble spirit, superlative courage, and conspicuous self-sacrifice in inflicting maximum damage on the enemy exemplified valor of the highest degree and his actions were in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Air Force.

STONE, JAMES L.: Korean War. First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company E 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Near Sokkogae, Korea, 21 and 22 November 1951. Citation: 1st Lt. Stone, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. When his platoon, holding a vital outpost position, was attacked by overwhelming Chinese forces, 1st Lt. Stone stood erect and exposed to the terrific enemy fire calmly directed his men in the defense. A defensive flame-thrower failing to function, he personally moved to its location, further exposing himself, and personally repaired the weapon. Throughout a second attack, 1st Lt. Stone; though painfully wounded, personally carried the only remaining light machine gun from place to place in the position in order to bring fire upon the Chinese advancing from 2 directions. Throughout he continued to encourage and direct his depleted platoon in its hopeless defense. Although again wounded, he continued the fight with his carbine, still exposing himself as an example to his men. When this final overwhelming assault swept over the platoon's position his voice could still be heard faintly urging his men to carry on, until he lost consciousness. Only because of this officer's driving spirit and heroic action was the platoon emboldened to make its brave but hopeless last ditch stand.

Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:

Arthur MAYO: Indian Mutiny. Midshipman. Indian Naval Brigade Citation: For having headed the charge on the 22nd of November, 1857, in the engagement between the Indian Naval Brigade and the mutineers of the 73rd Native Infantry, and Bengal Artillery, when the former was ordered to charge 2 sixpounders which were keeping up a heavy fire. Mr. Mayo was nearly 20 yards in front of any

Richard RIDGEWAY : Naga Hills Expedition. Captain. Bengal Staff Corps, Indian Army, and 44th Gurkha Rifles. Indian Army. On 22 November 1879 during the final assault on Konoma, Eastern Frontier of India, under heavy fire from the enemy, Captain Ridgeway rushed up to a barricade and attempted to tear down the planking surrounding it to enable him to effect an entrance. While doing this he was wounded severely in the right shoulder.

Charles KENNEDY: Boer War. Citation: At Dewetsdorp on the 22nd November, 1900, Private Kennedy carried a comrade, who was dangerously wounded and bleeding to death, from Gibraltar Hill to the Hospital, a distance of three-quarters of a mile, under a very hot fire. On the following day, volunteers having been called for to take a message to the Commandant across a space over which it was almost certain death to venture, Private Kennedy at once stepped forward. He did not, however, succeed in delivering the message as he was severely wounded before he had gone 20 yards.

BHANDARI RAM : World War Two. Sepoy. 16th Battalion 10th Baluch Regiment, British Indian Army. Citation: On 22nd November 1944, in East Mayu, Arakan, during a company attack on a strongly held Japanese bunkered position, No. 24782 Sepoy Bhandari Ram was in the leading section of one of the platoons. To reach its objective, his platoon had to climb a precipitous slope, by way of a narrow ridge with sheer sides. When fifty yards from the top, the platoon came under heavy and accurate machine-gun fire. Three men were wounded, amongst them Sepoy Bhandari Ram, who received a burst in his left shoulder and a wound in his leg. The platoon was pinned down by the intense enemy fire.

Bhandari Ram then crawled up to the Japanese machine-gun, whilst in full view of the enemy, and approached to within fifteen yards of the enemy, who hurled grenades at him, wounding him in the face and chest. Undeterred and severely wounded, this sepoy, with superhuman courage and determination, crawled up to within five yards of his objective. He then threw a grenade into the position, killing the enemy gunner and two other men, and continued his crawl to the post. Inspired by his example, the platoon rushed up and captured the position. It was only after the position had been taken that he lay down and allowed his wounds to be dressed. By his cool courage, determination to destroy the enemy at all cost and total disregard for his personal safety, this young sepoy enabled his platoon to capture what he knew to be the key to the whole enemy position. For his outstanding bravery, selflessness and qualities beyond the call of duty, Sepoy Bhandari Ram was awarded the Victoria Cross.
Pat

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Sat Nov 23, 2013 7:02 am

November 23

625 BC Nabopolassar becomes King of Babylon.

534 BC Thespis of Icaria becomes the first recorded actor to portray a character onstage.

1248 King Ferdinand III of Castilla-Leon liberates Seville from the Moors.

1459 Battle of Blore Heath sees Yorkists defeat the Lancastrians.

1499 Perkin Warbeck, pretender to the throne of Henry VII, hanged at Tyburn as a traitor.

1617 Anne Hébert marries Étienne Jonquet; first marriage on record in Quebec.

1644 John Milton publishes Areopagitica.

1765 Frederick County in Maryland became the first colonial entity to repudiate the British Stamp Act.

1785 John Hancock was elected President of the Continental Congress for the second time.

1804 Franklin Pierce, the 14th president of the United States, was born in Hillsboro, N.H.

1809 Horatio Phillips Van Cleve, Brig Gen, U.S., born.

1815 Montreal installs first street lamps, the first in Canada, fueled by whale oil.

1819 Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss, Maj Gen, U.S., born.

1835 Henry Burden of Troy New York invented the first machine for manufacturing horseshoes. He made most of the ordered horseshoes for the Federal Army in the Civil War.

1837 Montreal shops are first lit by coal gas; replacing whale oil.

1837 Patriote leader Amury Girod sets up a rebel camp at St-Benoît, north of Montreal, in preparation for attacking Montreal.

1837 Patriote leader Wolfred Nelson leads his troops in defeating British troops at the battle of St-Denis.

1859 Henry McCarty, aka Henry Antrim, aka, William Boney, aka William Bonnie, aka Billy the Kid" born in New York.

1863 Battle of Chattanooga begins.

1868 7th Cavalry departs Camp Supply for winter campaign.

1876 Tammany Hall leader William Magear "Boss" Tweed is delivered to authorities in New York City after being captured in Spain.

1878 Ernest King, U.S. Admiral, born.

1889 The jukebox debut at the Palais Royale Saloon in San Francisco.

1890 King William III of the Netherlands dies without a male heir and a special law is passed to allow his daughter Princess Wilhelmina to become his heir.

1902 Dr. Walter Reed died from a ruptured appendix in Washington DC at age 51.

1903 Singer Enrico Caruso made his American debut at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York, appearing in "Rigoletto."

1903 Colorado Gov. Peabody calls up the Colorado National Guard and sends them to Cripple Creek on strike breaking duty, one of the duties most detested by the National Guard of this era.

1914 The last of U.S. forces withdraw from Veracruz, occupied seven months earlier in response to the Tampico Affair.

1917 Troops of the 84th Division stood out in the cold at Camp Zachary Taylor Kentucky so that they could be reviewed by Gen. Harry C. Hale.

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1920 General Lejeune was photographed:

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1934 Japan declares its intention to withdraw from the terms of the 1922 Washington Naval Conference.

1934 An Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission in the Ogaden discovers an Italian garrison at Walwal, within Ethiopian territory, leading to the Abyssinia Crisis.

1936 Life magazine first published.

1936 U.S. abandoned the American embassy in Madrid, Spain,

1939 Germans order Polish Jews to wear a yellow Star of David.

1939 President Franklin Roosevelt carved the turkey at Warm Springs in the first of several Thanksgivings that were celebrated on two separate dates, this date being a week earlier than the traditional date. It had been moved up to increase the shopping time between Thanksgiving and Christmas in the hopes of boosting sales during the Depression. The move was unpopular and Congress restored the traditional date in 1941.

1940 Romania becomes a signatory of the Tripartite Pact.

1940:

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1942 Japanese bomb Port Darwin, Australia.

1942 Hitler orders German troops in Stalingrad to "dig in" rather than break out.

1942 US Coast Guard Woman's Auxiliary (SPARS) was authorized.
selewis wrote:
According to my mother, the first SPARs were drafted from the Navy. She was among those WAVEs who chose to follow their commanding officer into the Coast Guard when that auxiliary was being formed. She was stationed at the old customs house building in downtown Boston from where,IIRC, shipping along the North Atlantic seaboard was coordinated.

I remember her telling me when I was very young that the flashing code of the Cohasset light ,1-4-3, meant 'I Love You' to sailors at sea. Funny, the things that stick in your mind.

Sandy
1943 USMC took the Tarawa and Makin atolls from the Japanese.

1944 Seventh Army captures Strassbourg.

1944 William Lyon Mackenzie King switches his conscription policy and announces that 16,000 home defense conscripts will be sent to England as reinforcements. Prior to this all Canadians deployed overseas were volunteers. Riots break out in Montreal and Quebec where the French population had always been lukewarm about the war.

1945 Meat and butter rationing ends in US.

1946 French Navy shells Haiphong, Vietnam.

1950 A battalion from the Netherlands joined the U.N. forces in Korea.

1952 Red Chinese forces launch three-day offensive against Le Royal 22e Régiment (the Van Doos) of the Canadian Army in Korea.

1954 The Dow Jones industrial average finally surpassed it's pre-crash 1929 high when it closed at 382.74.

1971 The People's Republic of China was seated in the U.N. Security Council.

1974 Cornelius Ryan, war reporter, historian, author, died of cancer at age 54. Ryan wrote the classic World War Two histories, A Bridge Too Far, The Longest Day, and The Last Battle. The Longest Day became a classic World War Two film during his lifetime, A Bridge Too Far was turned into a film shortly after his death.

1979 Thomas McMahon is sentenced to life in prison for the assassination of Lord Mountbatten.

1985 Egyptian commandos storm hijacked EgyptAir jet in Malta.

2001 An Israeli helicopter fired two missiles at a van in the West Bank and killed Mahmoud Abu Hanoud, a leading member of Hamas group.

2003 Eduard Shevardnadze resigned as president of Georgia.

2010 North Korea bombarded South Korea's Yeonpyeong Island with artillery fire.

Congressional Medals of Honor awarded for action on this day:

BARNUM, HENRY A.: Civil Aar. . Colonel, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chattanooga, Tenn., 23 November 1863. Citation: Although suffering severely from wounds, he led his regiment, inciting the men to greater action by word and example until again severely wounded.

SEWARD, RICHARD E.: Civil War. Paymaster's Steward, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Ship Island Sound, La., 23 November 1863. Citation: Served as paymaster's steward on board the U.S.S. Commodore, November 1863. Carrying out his duties courageously, Seward "volunteered to go on the field amidst a heavy fire to recover the bodies of 2 soldiers which he brought off with the aid of others; a second instance of personal valor within a fortnight.'' Promoted to acting master's mate.

TOFFEY, JOHN J.: Civil War. First Lieutenant, Company G, 33d New Jersey Infantry. Place and date. At Chattanooga, Tenn., 23 November 1863. Citation: Although excused from duty on account of sickness, went to the front in command of a storming party and with conspicuous gallantry participated in the assault of Missionary Ridge; was here wounded and permanently disabled.

VAN SCHAICK, LOUIS J.: Philippine Insurrection. First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Nasugbu, Batangas, Philippine Islands, 23 November 1901. Citation: While in pursuit of a band of insurgents was the first of his detachment to emerge from a canyon, and seeing a column of insurgents and fearing they might turn and dispatch his men as they emerged one by one from the canyon, galloped forward and closed with the insurgents, thereby throwing them into confusion until the arrival of others of the detachment.

SILK, EDWARD A. World War Two. First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company E, 398th Infantry, 100th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near St. Pravel, France, 23 November 1944. Citation. 1st Lt. Edward A. Silk commanded the weapons platoon of Company E, 398th Infantry, on 23 November 1944, when the end battalion was assigned the mission of seizing high ground overlooking Moyenmoutier France, prior to an attack on the city itself. His company jumped off in the lead at dawn and by noon had reached the edge of a woods in the vicinity of St. Pravel where scouts saw an enemy sentry standing guard before a farmhouse in a valley below. One squad, engaged in reconnoitering the area, was immediately pinned down by intense machinegun and automatic-weapons fire from within the house. Skillfully deploying his light machinegun section, 1st Lt. Silk answered enemy fire, but when 15 minutes had elapsed with no slackening of resistance, he decided to eliminate the strong point by a l-man attack. Running 100 yards across an open field to the shelter of a low stone wall directly in front of the farmhouse, he fired into the door and windows with his carbine; then, in full view of the enemy, vaulted the wall and dashed 50 yards through a hail of bullets to the left side of the house, where he hurled a grenade through a window, silencing a machinegun and killing 2 gunners. In attempting to move to the right side of the house he drew fire from a second machinegun emplaced in the woodshed. With magnificent courage he rushed this position in the face of direct fire and succeeded in neutralizing the weapon and killing the 2 gunners by throwing grenades into the structure. His supply of grenades was by now exhausted, but undaunted, he dashed back to the side of the farmhouse and began to throw rocks through a window, demanding the surrender of the remaining enemy. Twelve Germans, overcome by his relentless assault and confused by his unorthodox methods, gave up to the lone American. By his gallant willingness to assume the full burden of the attack and the intrepidity with which he carried out his extremely hazardous mission, 1st Lt. Silk enabled his battalion to continue its advance and seize its objective.

Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:

Leslie MAYGAR: Boer War. Lieutenant. 5th Victorian Mounted Rifles, Australian Forces. Citation: On 23 November 1901 at Geelhoutboom, Natal, South Africa, Lieutenant Maygar galloped out and ordered men of a detached post, which was being outflanked, to retire. The horse of one of the men was shot under him when the enemy were within 200 yards and Lieutenant Maygar dismounted and lifted the man on to his own horse which bolted into boggy ground, making them both dismount. As the horse could not carry two, the lieutenant again put the man on its back and told him to gallop for cover at once, while he himself went on foot. All this took place under very heavy fire.

Maygar went on to serve in World War One and was killed in Palestine.

DARWAN SING NEGI: World War One. Naik. 1st Battalion, 39th Garhwal Rifles.Citation: For great gallantry on the night of the 23rd-24th November, near Festubert, France, when the regiment was engaged in retaking and clearing the enemy out of our trenches, and, although wounded in two places in the head, and also in the arm, being one of the first to push round each successive traverse, in the face of severe fire from bombs and rifles at the closest range.

Alfred DRAKE: World War One. Posthumous award. Corporal. 8th Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own), British Army. Citation: For most conspicuous bravery on the night of 23rd Nov., 1915, near La Brique, France. He was one of a patrol of four which was reconnoitring towards the German lines. The patrol was discovered when close to the enemy who opened heavy fire with rifles and a machine gun, wounding the Officer and one man. The latter was carried back by the last remaining man. Corporal Drake remained with his Officer and was last seen kneeling beside him and bandaging his wounds regardless of the enemy's fire. Later a rescue party crawling near the German lines found the Officer and Corporal, the former unconcious (sic) but alive and bandaged, Corporal Drake beside him dead and riddled with bullets. He had given his own life and saved his Officer.

Philip GARDNER: World War Two. Captain. 4th Royal Tank Regiment, British Army. Citation: On 23 November 1941 at Tobruk, Libya, Captain Gardner was ordered to take two tanks to the rescue of two armoured cars of the King's Dragoon Guards, which were out of action and under heavy attack. While one of his tanks gave covering fire the captain dismounted from the other in the face of heavy fire, hitched a tow rope to one of the cars, then lifted into it an officer, both of whose legs had been blown off. The tow rope broke, so Captain Gardner returned to the armoured car, but was immediately wounded in the arm and leg. Despite this he managed to transfer the wounded man to the second tank and returned to British lines through intense shell-fire.
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Sun Nov 24, 2013 8:25 am

November 24

380 Theodosius I makes his adventus into Constantinople.

1434. Thames freezes.

1642. Abel Tasman discovered Van Diemen's land (Tasmania).

1648 Mohawks and Senecas go on warpath against Hurons.

1655. The "Lord Protector" Cromwell bans the Anglicans.

1655 King Charles XI of Sweden born.

1713 Fra Junipero Serra, missionary and explorer, born.

1715. The Thames freezes.

1758 John Forbes captures Fort Duquesne, near modern Pittsburg, after the French blow it up.

1784 Zachary Taylor, the 12th president of the United States, born in Orange County, Va.

1820 Arthur French, MP for Co. Roscommon, dies "of excessive fox-hunting".

1835. Texas authorizes the Texas Rangers.

1863. The Civil War battles of Chattanooga, Columbia and Lookout Mt begin in Tennessee.

1869 Louis Riel calls a meeting of the inhabitants of Red River in Fort Garry and proposes the creation of provisional government to replace the Council of Assiniboia.

1871 The American National Rifle Association was incorporated.

1874. Joseph F. Glidden receives his patent for barbed wire.

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1887 Erich von Manstein born in Berlin, Germany. He was one of the principal German Field Marshals of World War Two, and is generally regarded as one of the best. Known to personally dislike Hitler, he none the less served the Third Reich and refused to have any part in plots to overthrow Hitler. He also issued orders to his troops in the Soviet Union that comported with the murderous ideology of the Nazis in regards to the Communist and Jews, so his apologists have little grounds to view him favorably. He was relieved by Hitler in 1944 and convicted of War Crimes post war, but was released from confinement in 1953 due to ill health.

1914 The first Battle of Ypres ends in a stalemate.

1918
Pat Holscher wrote:Today is also the 90th anniversary of the cartoon "Gasoline Alley".

That has nothing to do with the theme of this website, of course, but might have a little to do with the ongoing motor vehicle/horse costs thread, which goes back to that era, and a little earlier.
1922 Irish Republican Erksine Childers executed by the Irish Free State.

1925 William F. Buckley Jr., conservative columnist and significant figure in late 20th Century American politics, was born in New York.

1929 Senator Francis E. Warren died. At the time of his death, he had been a Senator longer than any other person in U.S. history. He was also the last Union veteran to serve in the U.S. Senate, a distinction in his case which was amplified by the fact that he was a recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor, which perhaps explains his strong support of the Army while a Senator (which might also be explained by the fact that he was John J. Pershing's father in law). He was also the first Senator to hire a female secretary. His service was not without some blemishes, as a close association with the large stockmen side of the Johnson County War had given rise to questions about the extent of his association at that time, questions which nearly cost him his political career but which quickly passed.

1937. The Andrews Sisters record Bei Mir Bist Du Schön, which would become a big hit for them, somewhat ironically in that they're regarded as one of the major World War Two era US singing acts.

1940 Slovakia becomes a signatory to the Tripartite Pact.

1944 US bombs Tokyo for the first time since the Doolittle Raid, this time with B-29s.

1969 Apollo 12 returned to Earth.

1971 Hijacker D.B. Cooper parachuted from a Northwest Airlines 727 over Washington state with $200,000. He is presumed to have died in the attempt, but this is unknown. A small amount of the money was recovered in the wilderness, but most remains missing.

1985 The hijacking of an Egyptair ends in Malta, with 60 deaths, when Egyptian commandos stormed the plane. Two of the dead were shot by the hijackers, the remainder died in the rescue effort.

1987 The United States and the Soviet Union agreed a treaty eliminating an entire class of nuclear weapons.

2005 New licensing laws come into force in Britain, allowing '24 hour drinking'. :oops: Hey, what the heck are you guys up to over there?

Congressional Medals of Honor for action on this day:

KAPPESSER, PETER: Civil War. Private, Company B, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Lookout Mountain, Tenn., 24 November 1863. Citation: Capture of Confederate flag (Bragg's army).

KIGGINS, JOHN: Civil War. Sergeant, Company D, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Lookout Mountain, Tenn., 24 November 1863. Citation: Waved the colors to save the lives of the men who were being fired upon by their own batteries, and thereby drew upon himself a concentrated fire from the enemy.

POTTER, NORMAN F.: Civil War. First Sergeant, Company E, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Lookout Mountain, Tenn., 24 November 1863. Citation: Capture of flag (Bragg's army).

WILLIAMS, ANTONIO: Peacetime award. Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1825, Malta. Citation: For courage and fidelity displayed in the loss of the U.S.S. Huron, 24 November 1877.

KNIGHT, NOAH O.: Korean War. Posthumous award. Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company F, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kowang-San, Korea, 23 and 24 November 1951. Citation: Pfc. Knight, a member of Company F, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. He occupied a key position in the defense perimeter when waves of enemy troops passed through their own artillery and mortar concentrations and charged the company position. Two direct hits from an enemy emplacement demolished his bunker and wounded him. Disregarding personal safety, he moved to a shallow depression for a better firing vantage. Unable to deliver effective fire from his defilade position, he left his shelter, moved through heavy fire in full view of the enemy and, firing into the ranks of the relentless assailants, inflicted numerous casualties, momentarily stemming the attack. Later during another vicious onslaught, he observed an enemy squad infiltrating the position and, counterattacking, killed or wounded the entire group. Expending the last of his ammunition, he discovered 3 enemy soldiers entering the friendly position with demolition charges. Realizing the explosives would enable the enemy to exploit the breach, he fearlessly rushed forward and disabled 2 assailants with the butt of his rifle when the third exploded a demolition charge killing the 3 enemy soldiers and mortally wounding Pfc. Knight. Pfc. Knight's supreme sacrifice and consummate devotion to duty reflect lasting glory on himself and uphold the noble traditions of the military service.

Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:

Frank DE PASS: World War One. Posthumous award. Lieutenant. 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse. 24 November 1914. Festubert, France. Rescued a Sap under heavy fire. He was killed the next day in battle.

Thomas DERRICK: World War Two. Sergeant. Australian Forces. Citation: For most conspicuous courage, outstanding leadership and devotion to duty during the final assault on Sattelberg in November, 1943.

On 24th November, 1943, a company of an Australian Infantry Battalion was ordered to outflank a strong enemy position sited on a precipitous cliff-face and then to attack a feature 150 yards from the township of Sattelberg. Sergeant Derrick was in command of his platoon of the company. Due to the nature of the country, the only possible approach to the town lay through an open kunai patch situated directly beneath the top of the cliffs. Over a period of two hours many attempts were made by our troops to clamber up the slopes to their objective, but on each occasion the enemy prevented success with intense machine-gun fire and grenades.

Shortly before last light it appeared that it would be impossible to reach the objective or even to hold the ground already occupied and the company was ordered to retire. On receipt of this order, Sergeant Derrick, displaying dogged tenacity, requested one last attempt to reach the objective. His request was granted.

Moving ahead of his forward section he personally destroyed, with grenades, an enemy post which had been holding up this section. He then ordered his second section around on the right flank. This section came under heavy fire from light machine-guns and grenades from, six enemy posts. Without regard for personal safety he clambered forward well ahead of the leading men of the section and hurled grenade after grenade, so completely demoralising the enemy that they fled leaving weapons and grenades. By this action alone the company was able to gain its first foothold on the precipitous ground.

Not content with the work already done, he returned to the first section, and together with the third section of his platoon advanced to deal with the three remaining posts in the area. On four separate occasions he dashed forward and threw grenades at a range of six to eight yards until these positions were finally silenced.

In all, Sergeant Derrick had reduced ten enemy posts. From the vital ground he had captured the remainder of the Battalion moved on to capture Sattelberg the following morning.
Undoubtedly Sergeant Derrick's fine leadership and refusal to admit defeat, in the face of a seemingly impossible situation, resulted in the capture of Sattelberg. His outstanding gallantry, thoroughness and devotion to duty were an inspiration not only to his platoon and company but to the whole Battalion.
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Mon Nov 25, 2013 7:28 am

November 25

571 BC Servius Tullius, king of Rome, celebrates a triumph for his victory over the Etruscans.

1120 Henry I of England's heir, William Adelin, is drowned when the White Ship sinks in the English Channel.

1177 King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem defeat Saladin in the Battle of Montgisard.

1276 The Habsburg dynasty is founded as Rudolf of Habsburg seizes Vienna and makes it his capital.

1758 The British capture Fort Duquesne from the French.

1760 King George III ascends the throne.

1775 Congress begins issuing Letters of Marque and Reprisal

1783 The British evacuated New York.

1823 Joseph Alexander Cooper, Brig Gen, U.S. born.

1825 Edward Augustus Wild, Brig Gen, U.S., born.

1835 Andrew Carnegie, the industrialist and philanthropist who led the expansion of the American steel industry, was born in Scotland. Carnegie was principally a financial genius, whose knowledge of the steel industry, acquired while working for a railroad, allowed him to corner and dominate it.

1837 Col. George Wetherall's British troops charge 100 Patriote rebels holed up in the Manoir Debartzch.

1863 Union troops under General U.S. Grant routed Confederate troops under General Braxton Bragg at Missionary Ridge in Tennessee.

1864 Confederate agents unsuccessfully tried to burn the City of New York. Damage to the 19 hotels and theaters where primitive fire bombs had been used was limited, because the police had been forewarned.

1864 Confederate Cavalry under "Fighting Joe" Wheeler retreated at Sandersville, Georgia.

1867 Alfred Nobel patented dynamite.

1867 Fifty three cans of cranberries reported stored at Fort Bridger. Attribution, Wyoming State Historical Association calendar.

1876. The Dull Knife Battle. Col. Ranald S. Mackenzie, 4th U.S. Cavalry, in command of Company K, 2nd U.S. Cavalry, Company H and K, 3rd U.S. Cavalry, Company B, D, E, F, I, and M, 4th U.S. Cavalry, Company H and L, 5th U.S. Cavalry and accompanied by a large contingent of Pawnees, together Arapaho and even Lakota scouts, surprises the Big Horn mountain camp of Cheyennes under Dull Knife. Sometimes regarded as a somewhat unwarranted attack, Dull Knife's band had been at war with the US during the proceeding summer, and they had recently attacked and defeated a band of Shoshone. Mackenzie's attack did not succeed in taking the camp whole, but it did succeed in eventually driving the Cheyenne out of it, who lost a great number of villagers in the frozen retreat thereafter. A large number of the ultimate dead were the old and very young. The attack is remarkable for having occurred in horrific climatic conditions, which are much like those we are seeing here today as I write this. That is, below 0 weather, snow, and high winds. Mackenzie, who would ultimate go insane, proved to remain a brilliant commander at this time, but he was already suffering from the psychological conditions that would ultimately overcome him.
Image
Ranald. S. Macknezie.
Couvi wrote: I just finished reading Empire of the Summer Moon, Quanah Parker and the rise and fall of the Comanches, the most powerful Indian tribe in American history, by S.C Gwynne. An excellent work.

The book discusses McKenzie at some length and credits the victories over the Comanches to his exploration and mapping of their territory, his hard training of the 4th Cavalry Regiment and his tenacity. It also discusses the sad decline in his mental health, his death on 18 January, 1889 and his barely heralded burial.
1882 Ft. Point. California renamed Ft. Winfield Scott.

1885 Canadian government establishes Rocky Mountains Park at "Siding 29" on the Canadian Pacific Railway.

1914 Baseball Hall of Famer Joe DiMaggio was born in Martinez, Calif.

1917 German forces defeat Portuguese army at Negomano on the border of modern-day Mozambique and Tanzania.

1922 Crown Prince Hirohito, 22, appointed Prince-Regent of Japan

1936 Germany & Japan sign anti-Comintern pact.

1940 First flight of the deHavilland Mosquito and Martin B-26 Marauder.

1941 The US Navy begins to establish compulsory convoying for merchant ships in the Pacific.

1943 The Cairo Conference ends.

1943 Statehood of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared at the State Anti-Fascist Council for the People's Liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

1943 Canadian Eighth Army crosses Sangro River.

1947 Movie studio executives agreed to blacklist the Hollywood 10, who were jailed a day earlier for contempt of Congress for failing to cooperate with the House Un-American Activities Committee. The controversial incident is somewhat inaccurately remembered, in that it's popularly imagined that the ten were blacklisted due to unwarranted suspicions that they had been members of the American Communist Party, when at least the technical reason was their failure to cooperate. Moreover, at least Edward Dmytryk, Lester Cole, Ring Lardner, Jr., and Dalton Trumbo actually were or had been Communists. One of the ten, Edward Dmytryk, testified before the HUAC that yet another, Adrian Scott pressured him to put communist propaganda in his films. Hanns Eisler was actually denounced by his sister, Ruth Fischer, who also testified before the House Committee that her other brother, Gerhart, was a major Communist agent. The Communist press denounced her as a "German Trotskyite." Among the works that Eisler composed for the Communist Party was the "Comintern March", "The Comintern calls you / Raise high Soviet banner / In steeled ranks to battle / Raise sickle and hammer." He was deported and lived the rest of his life in East Germany.

The entire incident is now remembered in the context of the McCarthy era, which ended with McCarthy's embarrassing accusation that the Army had been infiltrated by Communists. But in 1947 Congress was only barely awakening to the topic of Communists in US society, which was becoming an increasingly significant topic in light of Soviet actions post 1945. While by the 1950s the reaction on the part of Congress would be over broad, in the late 1940s the investigations were focusing on individuals who did in fact have a strong tie to Communism. It was not illegal, by any means, to be a Communist, and never would be in the US, but the concern in the 1940s was not misplaced, if not accurately understood, and if exaggerated in the imagination. The excesses of McCarthyism in the 1950s would later allow apologists for American Communists to argue that they really weren't communist, but in the instances of these very first actions, the individuals receiving attention actually did have Communist sympathies or were Communists. Whether or not they should have lost their jobs for that is another question, but one that is actually rarely actually asked.

1947 Representatives from the United States, France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union come together to discuss the fate of Germany.

1950 The Red Chinese released 57 U.S. prisoners in a propaganda move.

1950 The Red Chinese Communist Forces launched their second-phase offensive in Korea.

1951 A truce line between U.N. troops and North Korea was mapped out at the peace talks in Panmunjom, Korea. Fighting went on.

1956 Fidel Castro and 81 rebel exiles depart Mexico to overthrow Fulgencia Batista.

1957 President Eisenhower suffered a slight stroke.

1961 Commissioning of USS Enterprise (CVA(N)-65), the first nuclear powered aircraft carrier, at Newport News, VA.

1963 John F. Kennedy is laid to rest with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia.

1973 Greek President George Papadopoulos was ousted in a bloodless military coup.

1973 President Richard M. Nixon called for a Sunday ban on the sale of gasoline.

1983 Syria & Saudi Arabia announce cease-fire in PLO civil war in Lebanon

1986 President Reagan and Attorney General Edwin Meese revealed that profits from secret arms sales to Iran had been diverted to Nicaraguan rebels

1999 Six-year-old Cuban refugee Elian Gonzalez was rescued by a pair of sport fishermen off the coast of Florida.

2002 President George W. Bush signed legislation creating the Department of Homeland Security and appointed Tom Ridge to be its head.

2003 Yemen arrested Mohammed Hamdi al-Ahdal, a top al-Qaida member suspected of masterminding the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole and the 2002 bombing of a French oil tanker off Yemen's coast.

Congressional Medals of Honor awarded for action on this day:

BANKS, GEORGE L.: Civil War. Sergeant, Company C, 15th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: As color bearer, led his regiment in the assault, and, though wounded, carried the nag forward to the enemy's works, where he was again wounded. In a brigade of 8 regiments this flag was the first planted on the parapet.

BELL, JAMES B. Civil War. Sergeant, Company H, 11th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: Though severely wounded, was first of his regiment on the summit of the ridge, planted his colors inside the enemy's works, and did not leave the field until after he had been wounded 5 times.

BOYNTON, HENRY V.: Civil War. Lieutenant Colonel, 35th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: Led his regiment in the face of a severe fire of the enemy; was severely wounded.

BROUSE, CHARLES W.: Civil War. Captain, Company K, 100th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: To encourage his men whom he had ordered to lie down while under severe fire, and who were partially protected by slight earthworks, himself refused to lie down, but walked along the top of the works until he fell severely wounded.

BROWN, ROBERT B.: Civil War. Private, Company A, 15th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: Upon reaching the ridge through concentrated fire, he approached the color bearer of the 9th Mississippi Infantry (C.S.A.), demanded his surrender with threatening gesture and took him prisoner with his regimental flag.

CART, JACOB: Civil War. Private, Company A, 7th Pennsylvania Reserve Corps. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., 13 December, 1862. Citation: Capture of flag of 19th Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.), wresting it from the hands of the color bearer.

DAVIS, FREEMAN: Civil War. Sergeant, Company B, 80th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: This soldier, while his regiment was falling back, seeing the 2 color bearers shot down, under a severe fire and at imminent peril recovered both the flags and saved them from capture.

GRAHAM, THOMAS N.: Civil War. Second Lieutenant, Company G, 15th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: Seized the colors from the color bearer, who had been wounded, and, exposed to a terrible fire, carried them forward, planting them on the enemy's breastworks.

GREEN, GEORGE: Civil War. Corporal, Company H, 11th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: Scaled the enemy's works and in a hand-to-hand fight helped capture the flag of the 18th Alabama Infantry (C.S.A.).

HOWARD, HIRAM R.: Civil War. Private, Company H, 11th Ohio Infantry Place and date. At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: Scaled the enemy's works and in a hand-to-hand fight helped capture the flag of the 18th Alabama Infantry (C.S.A.).

JOHNS, HENRY T.: Civil War. Private, Company C, 49th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Port Hudson, La., 27 May 1863. Citation: Volunteered in response to a call and took part in the movement that was made upon the enemy's works under a heavy fire therefrom ?of a mile in advance of the general assault.

JOHNSON, RUEL M.: Civil War. Major, 100th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Chattanooga, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: While in command of the regiment bravely exposed himself to the fire of the enemy, encouraging and cheering his men.

JOSSELYN, SIMEON T.: Civil War. First Lieutenant, Company C, 13th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: While commanding his company, deployed as skirmishers, came upon a large body of the enemy, taking a number of them prisoner. Lt. Josselyn himself shot their color bearer, seized the colors and brought them back to his regiment.

KELLEY, LEVERETT M.: Civil War. Sergeant, Company A, 36th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: Sprang over the works just captured from the enemy, and calling upon his comrades to follow, rushed forward in the face of a deadly fire and was among the first over the works on the summit, where he compelled the surrender of a Confederate officer and received his sword.

KOUNTZ, JOHN S.: Civil War. Musician, Company G, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: Seized a musket and joined in the charge in which he was severely wounded.

MacARTHUR, ARTHUR, JR.: Civil War. First Lieutenant, and Adjutant, 24th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: Seized the colors of his regiment at a critical moment and planted them on the captured works on the crest of Missionary Ridge.

REED, AXEL H.: Civil War. Sergeant, Company K, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Chickamauga, Ga., 19 September 1863; At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation: While in arrest at Chickamauga, Ga., left his place in the rear and voluntarily went to the line of battle, secured a rifle, and fought gallantly during the two day battle; was released from arrest in recognition of his bravery. At Missionary Ridge commanded his company and gallantly led it, being among the first to enter the enemy's works; was severely wounded, losing an arm, but declined a discharge and remained in active service to the end of the war.

SCHMIDT, WILLIAM: Civil War. Private, Company G, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Citation. Rescued a wounded comrade under terrific fire.

SHALER, ALEXANDER: Civil War. Colonel, 65th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Marye's Heights, Va., 3 May 1863. Citation: At a most critical moment, the head of the charging column being about to be crushed by the severe fire of the enemy's artillery and infantry, he pushed forward with a supporting column, pierced the enemy's works, and turned their flank.

WALKER, JAMES C.: Civil War. Private, Company K, 31st Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Entered service at: Springfield, Ohio. Birth: Clark County, Ohio. Date of issue: 25 November 1895. Citation: After 2 color bearers had fallen, seized the flag and carried it forward, assisting in the capture of a battery. Shortly thereafter he captured the flag of the 41st Alabama and the color bearer.

FORSYTH, THOMAS H: Indian Wars. First Sergeant, Company M, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Powder River, Wyo., 25 November 1876.Citation: Though dangerously wounded, he maintained his ground with a small party against a largely superior force after his commanding officer had been shot down during a sudden attack and rescued that officer and a comrade from the enemy.

Forsyth was an unusual enlisted man in that he was from a wealthy family and a man of means, something quite unusual for an enlisted man.


Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:

James JACKMAN : World War Two. Posthumous awrad. Captain. Z Company. 1st Royal Northumberland Fusiliers. 70th Division, British Army. Citation: On 25 November 1941 at Tobruk, Libya, the assault on El Duda bridge was being slowed down by fierce enemy fire from anti-tank guns and Captain Jack as calmly as though on manoeuvres, led his machinegun company to ease the situation on the right flank of Allied tanks. Then, standing up in his vehicle, he led the trucks across the front between the tanks and the guns and got them into action on the left flank. His coolness and disregard of danger not only inspired his own men but also the tank crews. Ironically, he was killed next day.
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Mon Nov 25, 2013 5:43 pm

1876. The Dull Knife Battle. Col. Ranald S. Mackenzie, 4th U.S. Cavalry, in command of Company K, 2nd U.S. Cavalry, Company H and K, 3rd U.S. Cavalry, Company B, D, E, F, I, and M, 4th U.S. Cavalry, Company H and L, 5th U.S. Cavalry and accompanied by a large contingent of Pawnees, together Arapaho and even Lakota scouts, surprises the Big Horn mountain camp of Cheyennes under Dull Knife. Sometimes regarded as a somewhat unwarranted attack, Dull Knife's band had been at war with the US during the proceeding summer, and they had recently attacked and defeated a band of Shoshone. Mackenzie's attack did not succeed in taking the camp whole, but it did succeed in eventually driving the Cheyenne out of it, who lost a great number of villagers in the frozen retreat thereafter. A large number of the ultimate dead were the old and very young. The attack is remarkable for having occurred in horrific climatic conditions, which are much like those we are seeing here today as I write this. That is, below 0 weather, snow, and high winds. Mackenzie, who would ultimate go insane, proved to remain a brilliant commander at this time, but he was already suffering from the psychological conditions that would ultimately overcome him.
Image
Ranald. S. Macknezie.

Couvi wrote:
I just finished reading Empire of the Summer Moon, Quanah Parker and the rise and fall of the Comanches, the most powerful Indian tribe in American history, by S.C Gwynne. An excellent work.

The book discusses McKenzie at some length and credits the victories over the Comanches to his exploration and mapping of their territory, his hard training of the 4th Cavalry Regiment and his tenacity. It also discusses the sad decline in his mental health, his death on 18 January, 1889 and his barely heralded burial.
Between the Civil War and the Indian Wars, McKenzie was wounded seven times. He was a hard man to kill. His psychosis is believed to have been a result form a fall from a wagon at Fort Sill, truly a sad end to a brilliant commander and leader.
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Tue Nov 26, 2013 7:29 am

November 26

Today is Mongolian Independence Day.

43 BC The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony is formed.

624 The Persians annihilate a Moslem Arab army on the Euphrates at the "Battle of the Bridge".

1789 A day of thanksgiving was set aside by President George Washington to observe the adoption of the U.S. Constitution.

1476 Vlad III Dracula defeats Basarab Laiota with the help of Stephen the Great and Stephen V Bathory and becomes the ruler of Wallachia for the third time.

1648 Peace of Westphalia.

1691 Joseph Robinau de Villebon arrives at Port-Royal, Nova Scotia, takes possession of Acadia next day; goes to Fort Jemseg to establish rule with the government put under Sgt. Charles La Tourasse of the French garrison.

1703 Hurricane-force winds kill as many as 8,000 people as the 'Great Storm' sweeps southern England.

1778 Captain James Cook becomes the first European to visit Maui.

1832 Public streetcar service began in New York City.

1835 Texans defeat Mexicans outside San Antonio in the Grass Fight.

1842 The University of Notre Dame is founded.

1853 Bat Masterson born in Quebec.

1863 President Abraham Lincoln proclaims November 26th as a national Thanksgiving Day, to be celebrated annually on the final Thursday of November (since 1941, on the fourth Thursday).

1865 Battle of Papudo in which the Spanish navy engages a combined Peruvian-Chilean fleet north of Valparaiso, Chile.

1867 Lily Maxwell is the first woman to vote in a British parliamentary election. She was able to cast her vote due to a legal loophole.

1869 John Alexander Macdonald 1815-1891 refuses to take over Rupert's Land December 1 as agreed, due to the Metis occupation of Fort Garry and the Red River Insurrection. He orders Sir John Rose, Canadian representative in London, not to pay the £300,000 owing until the HBC can guarantee peaceful possession.

1878 Abigail Becker single-handedly rescues the captain and seven crew members of the overloaded schooner Conductor, foundered on a sandbar off Long Point on Lake Erie. The 'Heroine of Long Point' later rescued 6 other mariners from another wreck.

1899 Maurice Rose, Major General U.S. Army, born. Maj. Gen. Rose was the highest ranking officer of Jewish descent (although he was a Christian convert) to be killed in the U.S. Army in World War Two, and was killed in action in March 1945 when his vehicle was surrounded by German armor and he drew his pistol attempting to comply with instructions from an excited German soldiers. He was in command of the 3d Armored Division at the time.

1915 Mobilization of the 148th and 150th Montreal Infantry Battalions for service in World War I.

1917 The National Hockey League is formed, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, and Toronto Arenas as its first teams.

1922 Howard Carter opens the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings.

1922 Toll of the Sea debuts as the first general release film to use two-tone Technicolor. The Gulf Between was the first film to do so but it was not widely distributed.

1926. John M. Browning died.

1939 An odd item from the WWII list:
UNITED KINGDOM: After attempts to save New Forest ponies in the blackout by painting them like zebras, they are removed to pastures. The New Forest Ponies are native ponies of Britain, they live in a semi-wild state in the New Forest in Hampshire (Henry VIII planted this as a private hunting reserve, hence it is kept free from development and modern agriculture). As such they are (and still are) a protected species. I guess only the all black ponies would need painting, it wouldn't be much help to the grays and dapples. (Andy Etherington)
1940 Warsaw's Jews were forced by the Nazis to live within a walled ghetto.

1941 The American government demanded that Japanese forces be withdrawn from China, and that Japan recognize the Chinese Nationalist government.

1942 The British 78th Division drove the Germans out of Medjez el Bab in Tunisia.

1942 President Roosevelt ordered nationwide gasoline rationing, beginning December 1.

1942 "Casablanca," starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman, had its world premiere at the Hollywood Theater in New York.

1943 SS Rohna sunk by guided missile in the Med.

1944 Himmler orders destruction of Auschwitz and Birkenau crematoria.

1944 A German V-2 rocket hits a Woolworth's shop on New Cross High Street, United Kingdom, killing 168 shoppers.

1944 Germany begins V-1 and V-2 attacks on Antwerp, Belgium.

1949 India adopted a constitution as a republic within the British Commonwealth.

1950 China entered the Korean War. Odd news this day, in 2010, given that North Korea, the spoiled brat of Asia, has been acting up recently.

1953 British Peers back the Government's proposals for commercial television despite fierce opposition from those who fear the influence of advertisers.

1970 Benjamin O. Davis Sr, cavalryman, died. He was the first black general in the U.S. Army.

1973 President Richard Nixon's personal secretary, Rose Mary Woods, told a federal court that she'd accidentally caused part of the 18 1/2-minute gap in a key Watergate tape.

1975 A federal jury found Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, a follower of Charles Manson, guilty of trying to assassinate President Gerald R. Ford.

1983 An armed gang carries out Britain's largest robbery from the Brinks Mat warehouse, at London's Heathrow Airport.

1990 Mikhail Gorbachev tells Iraq to get out of Kuwait

1992 Britain announced that Queen Elizabeth II had volunteered to start paying taxes on her personal income, and would take her children off the public payroll. Presumably those in military service, of course, do receive their pay.

2008 Terrorists launched attacks on two luxury hotels, a Jewish center and a crowded train station in Mumbai, India, killing 166 people.

Congressional Medals of Honor awarded for action on this day:

POWELL, WILLIAM H.: Civil War. Major, 2d West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Sinking Creek Valley, Va., 26 November 1862. Citation: Distinguished services in raid, where with 20 men, he charged and captured the enemy's camp, 500 strong, without the loss of man or gun.

CRIST, JOHN: Indian Wars. Sergeant, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona, 26 November 1869. Citation: Gallantry in action.


STEWART, GEORGE E.: Philippine Insurrection. Second Lieutenant, 19th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Passi, Island of Panay, Philippine Islands, 26 November 1899. Birth: New South Wales. Date of issue: 26 June 1900. Citation: While crossing a river in face of the enemy, this officer plunged in and at the imminent risk of his own life saved from drowning an enlisted man of his regiment.

SHERIDAN, CARL V.: World War Two. Posthumous award. Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company K, 47th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division. Place and date: Frenzenberg Castle, Weisweiler, Germany, 26 November 1944. Citation: Attached to the 2d Battalion of the 47th Infantry on 26 November 1944, for the attack on Frenzenberg Castle, in the vicinity of Weisweiler, Germany, Company K, after an advance of 1,000 yards through a shattering barrage of enemy artillery and mortar fire, had captured 2 buildings in the courtyard of the castle but was left with an effective fighting strength of only 35 men. During the advance, Pfc. Sheridan, acting as a bazooka gunner, had braved the enemy fire to stop and procure the additional rockets carried by his ammunition bearer who was wounded. Upon rejoining his company in the captured buildings, he found it in a furious fight with approximately 70 enemy paratroopers occupying the castle gate house. This was a solidly built stone structure surrounded by a deep water-filled moat 20 feet wide. The only approach to the heavily defended position was across the courtyard and over a drawbridge leading to a barricaded oaken door. Pfc. Sheridan, realizing that his bazooka was the only available weapon with sufficient power to penetrate the heavy oak planking, with complete disregard for his own safety left the protection of the buildings and in the face of heavy and intense small-arms and grenade fire, crossed the courtyard to the drawbridge entrance where he could bring direct fire to bear against the door. Although handicapped by the lack of an assistant, and a constant target for the enemy fire that burst around him, he skillfully and effectively handled his awkward weapon to place two well-aimed rockets into the structure. Observing that the door was only weakened, and realizing that a gap must be made for a successful assault, he loaded his last rocket, took careful aim, and blasted a hole through the heavy planks. Turning to his company he shouted, "Come on, let's get them!" With his .45 pistol blazing, he charged into the gaping entrance and was killed by the withering fire that met him. The final assault on Frezenberg Castle was made through the gap which Pfc. Sheridan gave his life to create.

MITCHELL, FRANK N.: Korean War. Posthumous award. First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company A, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Near Hansan-ni, Korea, 26 November 1950. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as leader of a rifle platoon of Company A, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Leading his platoon in point position during a patrol by his company through a thickly wooded and snow-covered area in the vicinity of Hansan-ni, 1st Lt. Mitchell acted immediately when the enemy suddenly opened fire at pointblank range, pinning down his forward elements and inflicting numerous casualties in his ranks. Boldly dashing to the front under blistering fire from automatic weapons and small arms, he seized an automatic rifle from one of the wounded men and effectively trained it against the attackers and, when his ammunition was expended, picked up and hurled grenades with deadly accuracy, at the same time directing and encouraging his men in driving the outnumbering enemy from his position. Maneuvering to set up a defense when the enemy furiously counterattacked to the front and left flank, 1st Lt. Mitchell, despite wounds sustained early in the action, reorganized his platoon under the devastating fire, and spearheaded a fierce hand-to-hand struggle to repulse the onslaught. Asking for volunteers to assist in searching for and evacuating the wounded, he personally led a party of litter bearers through the hostile lines in growing darkness and, although suffering intense pain from multiple wounds, stormed ahead and waged a single-handed battle against the enemy, successfully covering the withdrawal of his men before he was fatally struck down by a burst of small-arms fire. Stouthearted and indomitable in the face of tremendous odds, 1st Lt. Mitchell, by his fortitude, great personal valor and extraordinary heroism, saved the lives of several marines and inflicted heavy casualties among the aggressors. His unyielding courage throughout reflects the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.

PITTMAN, JOHN A.: Korean War. Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 23d Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kujangdong, Korea, 26 November 1950. Citation: Sgt. Pittman, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. He volunteered to lead his squad in a counterattack to regain commanding terrain lost in an earlier engagement. Moving aggressively forward in the face of intense artillery, mortar, and small-arms fire he was wounded by mortar fragments. Disregarding his wounds he continued to lead and direct his men in a bold advance against the hostile standpoint. During this daring action, an enemy grenade was thrown in the midst of his squad endangering the lives of his comrades. Without hesitation, Sgt. Pittman threw himself on the grenade and absorbed its burst with his body. When a medical aid man reached him, his first request was to be informed as to how many of his men were hurt. This intrepid and selfless act saved several of his men from death or serious injury and was an inspiration to the entire command. Sgt. Pittman's extraordinary heroism reflects the highest credit upon himself and is in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the military service.

FLEMING, JAMES P.: Vietnam War. Captain, U.S. Air Force, 20th Special Operations Squadron. Place and date: Near Duc Co, Republic of Vietnam, 26 November 1968. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Fleming (then 1st Lt.) distinguished himself as the Aircraft Commander of a UH-1F transport Helicopter. Capt. Fleming went to the aid of a 6-man special forces long range reconnaissance patrol that was in danger of being overrun by a large, heavily armed hostile force. Despite the knowledge that 1 helicopter had been downed by intense hostile fire, Capt. Fleming descended, and balanced his helicopter on a river bank with the tail boom hanging over open water. The patrol could not penetrate to the landing site and he was forced to withdraw. Dangerously low on fuel, Capt. Fleming repeated his original landing maneuver. Disregarding his own safety, he remained in this exposed position. Hostile fire crashed through his windscreen as the patrol boarded his helicopter. Capt. Fleming made a successful takeoff through a barrage of hostile fire and recovered safely at a forward base. Capt. Fleming's profound concern for his fellowmen, and at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.

Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day.

None.
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Tue Nov 26, 2013 7:55 am

Verderer? Can any of you Brits explain this term?
UNITED KINGDOM: After attempts to save New Forest ponies in the blackout by painting them like zebras, they are removed to pastures. The New Forest Ponies are native ponies of Britain, they live in a semi-wild state in the New Forest in Hampshire (Henry VIII planted this as a private hunting reserve, hence it is kept free from development and modern agriculture). As such they are (and still are) a protected species. I guess only the all black ponies would need painting, it wouldn't be much help to the grays and dapples. (Andy Etherington)
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Tue Nov 26, 2013 12:44 pm

Couvi,

the following comes from the website of the Verderers of the New Forest. Basically, they are the guys who run what is, in effect, England's oldest national park

"The New Forest is a royal former hunting area in Hampshire, and was constituted by William the Conqueror in the 11th century.

It is a nationally important environment of woodland pasture, heath, bog and the remains of 17th, 18th & 19th century coppices and timber plantations. It retains many of the agricultural practices conceded by the Crown in historical times to local people. Principal of these is the depasturing of ponies, cattle, pigs and donkeys in the Open Forest by authorised local inhabitants known as Commoners.

The New Forest is an outstanding recreational area for walking and horse riding.

The Crown still owns most of the land within the Forest. William imposed legal powers to arrest settlement by the local inhabitants and these limitations remain in modified form to this day. The rights of Commoners must be taken into account, together with preservation and enhancement of the flora and fauna.

The role of the Verderers



The role of the Verderers of the New Forest is to:
protect and administer the New Forest's unique agricultural commoning practices;
conserve its traditional landscape, wildlife and aesthetic character, including its flora and fauna, peacefulness, natural beauty and cultural heritage;
safeguard a viable future for commoning upon which the foregoing depends.

The Verderers derive their offices, powers and responsibilities from an Act of Parliament in 1877 (and subsequent Acts - a link to the Acts is available on the Links page).

The Court comprises the Official Verderer (Chairman), five elected Verderers representing the Commoners and four appointed Verderers: one each appointed by the Forestry Commission, DEFRA, the National Park Authority and Natural England. The post of Official Verderer is a statutory appointment made by Her Majesty the Queen.

We work in conjunction with the Forestry Commission (which manages the Forest on behalf of the Crown), Natural England, and with owners of other areas of common land within the Forest, such as the National Trust."

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Tue Nov 26, 2013 5:53 pm

Couvi wrote:
1876. The Dull Knife Battle. Col. Ranald S. Mackenzie, 4th U.S. Cavalry, in command of Company K, 2nd U.S. Cavalry, Company H and K, 3rd U.S. Cavalry, Company B, D, E, F, I, and M, 4th U.S. Cavalry, Company H and L, 5th U.S. Cavalry and accompanied by a large contingent of Pawnees, together Arapaho and even Lakota scouts, surprises the Big Horn mountain camp of Cheyennes under Dull Knife. Sometimes regarded as a somewhat unwarranted attack, Dull Knife's band had been at war with the US during the proceeding summer, and they had recently attacked and defeated a band of Shoshone. Mackenzie's attack did not succeed in taking the camp whole, but it did succeed in eventually driving the Cheyenne out of it, who lost a great number of villagers in the frozen retreat thereafter. A large number of the ultimate dead were the old and very young. The attack is remarkable for having occurred in horrific climatic conditions, which are much like those we are seeing here today as I write this. That is, below 0 weather, snow, and high winds. Mackenzie, who would ultimate go insane, proved to remain a brilliant commander at this time, but he was already suffering from the psychological conditions that would ultimately overcome him.
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Ranald. S. Macknezie.

Couvi wrote:
I just finished reading Empire of the Summer Moon, Quanah Parker and the rise and fall of the Comanches, the most powerful Indian tribe in American history, by S.C Gwynne. An excellent work.

The book discusses McKenzie at some length and credits the victories over the Comanches to his exploration and mapping of their territory, his hard training of the 4th Cavalry Regiment and his tenacity. It also discusses the sad decline in his mental health, his death on 18 January, 1889 and his barely heralded burial.
Between the Civil War and the Indian Wars, McKenzie was wounded seven times. He was a hard man to kill. His psychosis is believed to have been a result form a fall from a wagon at Fort Sill, truly a sad end to a brilliant commander and leader.
I was unaware of what his prior physical history was, that's very interesting. I've seen it speculated that he might perhaps have contracted a social disease early in his life, which does cause insanity. But head injuries are associated with various afflictions that can grow worse over the years too, which is something that is only really being explored now. It wouldn't surprise me if that was the source of his problems.

If you read the first hand accounts of this campaign he was already exhibiting the problems that would later retire him, as noted. He had some periods in camp when he was just besides himself. What's admirable here is that he struggled through it and the fact that he wasn't regarded as a particularly good horseman. This is rugged country, and he made it, leads his troops, and all in winter.
Pat

Animadvertistine, ubicumque stes, fumum recta in faciem ferri?
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