Mounted Police Today

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Wed Sep 03, 2003 9:06 pm

I thought it might be interesting to depict mounted policemen today. Very few nations today have actual horse cavalry, but quite a few mounted police forces are still around.

To start things off, here are some photos of the Policía Montada in La Sabana Metropolitan Park in Costa Rica. The mounted police force was founded in 1991, and the policemen are recruited for their rural background, given their previous experiences with horses. The horses are criollo de trabajo, a local breed. The policemen work eight 12 hour days, with eight days in a row thereafter off.

Thanks go to Juan Sepulveda for these photographs, as well as the information.

Image

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Wed Sep 03, 2003 10:48 pm

This is a topic that can be as varied as military ones. Mounted Law Enforcement today covers all aspects of usage, equipment/horses, training and concept/s.

There are cities with mounted units as small as two officers and some that number in excess of 36 troops, excluding NYPD and NPS.

One unfortunate aspect is that there is no real adhered by national standard in use. But most have one thing in common, they are drastically under-funded, under-horsed, and under-manned.

Mounted Police can have such a positive impact on Patrol and Community Policing operations whe properly employed. This could be an interesting topic.

Regards,
Ron Smith
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Thu Sep 04, 2003 6:39 am

<blockquote id="quote"><font size="1" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica" id="quote">quote:<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"><i>Originally posted by Ron Smith</i>
<br />This is a topic that can be as varied as military ones. Mounted Law Enforcement today covers all aspects of usage, equipment/horses, training and concept/s.

There are cities with mounted units as small as two officers and some that number in excess of 36 troops, excluding NYPD and NPS.

One unfortunate aspect is that there is no real adhered by national standard in use. But most have one thing in common, they are drastically under-funded, under-horsed, and under-manned.

Mounted Police can have such a positive impact on Patrol and Community Policing operations whe properly employed. This could be an interesting topic.

Regards,
Ron Smith
<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"></blockquote id="quote"></font id="quote">

I hope it does develop into an intersting topic, and I'd like to see some photos of various mounted police forces from around the globe posted here, or links ot interesting departments, etc.

On the relation to a military topic, I thought I'd note that in the particular case depicted above, that is Costa Rican policemen, while Tim is correct (down in the Quiz section) in noting these policemen patrol a park and related facilities, the only career opportunity for these men and women to serve, full time, in uniform for their nation actually comes in being a policeman. Costa Rica is one of a handfull of nations which has no standing army, although it does have a part time National Guard.

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Thu Sep 04, 2003 11:17 am

When we were in Brazil I noted a number of riding styles amongst the trainers and grooms, ranging from pretty sloppy to very military. I asked one of our hosts if the Brazilian Army or any police agencies maintained mounted units, as some of the riders I was watching were clearly riding a disciplined miliary seat. He said that he was not sure about the Army, but that the Policia Militar (which appears to be an amalgamation of a military and civilian police organization) does have mounted units. He was vague on what they do, but seemed to indicate more in the way of patrol and crowd duties than border patrol or military type duties.

Unfortunately, I was not able to find out any more.

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Thu Sep 04, 2003 12:28 pm

I was out dove hunting in the desert the other day when 3 mounted Border Patrol agents came upon me. Their usual MO is to zoom around in Tahoes or Expeditions and lately they've been using ATV's. Their tack appeared to be off the rack personal western gear, nothing special nor uniform issue. I can't say I've seen them mounted in a looong time. IMHO they oughtta take a page from the past and spend more time on horseback.

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Thu Sep 04, 2003 8:56 pm

<blockquote id="quote"><font size="1" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica" id="quote">quote:<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"><i>Originally posted by Camp Little</i>
<br />I was out dove hunting in the desert the other day when 3 mounted Border Patrol agents came upon me. Their usual MO is to zoom around in Tahoes or Expeditions and lately they've been using ATV's. Their tack appeared to be off the rack personal western gear, nothing special nor uniform issue. I can't say I've seen them mounted in a looong time. IMHO they oughtta take a page from the past and spend more time on horseback.

Steve
<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"></blockquote id="quote"></font id="quote">

I have to agree that the possibilities for rural mounted patrols are, in my opinion, very underappreciated.

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Thu Sep 04, 2003 11:26 pm

The Border Patrol is working on Mounted Patrols and is beginning ot see the value of the concept. One of the groups I teach with taught a Mounted Police school to them last year.

In October I am teaching Scottsdale, Az. and I think we have a number of INS-Border Patrol troops in it. They almost always use western tack btw, a practice of equipment usuage I do not condone but I am just the trainer.

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Ron Smith
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Fri Sep 05, 2003 6:51 am

<blockquote id="quote"><font size="1" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica" id="quote">quote:<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"><i>Originally posted by Ron Smith</i>
<br />The Border Patrol is working on Mounted Patrols and is beginning ot see the value of the concept. One of the groups I teach with taught a Mounted Police school to them last year.

In October I am teaching Scottsdale, Az. and I think we have a number of INS-Border Patrol troops in it. They almost always use western tack btw, a practice of equipment usuage I do not condone but I am just the trainer.

Regards,
Ron Smith
<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"></blockquote id="quote"></font id="quote">

I'm glad to hear of this expanded interest in the use of police horses for this type of work. As a person who spends a lot of time in the sticks, I've been impressed for awhile as to how effective even the occasional use of mounted men by rural police forces would be. Here there are a lot of opportunities for the use of occasionally mounted Game Wardens and sheriff's officers. There is some game warden use, but very little use otherwise. And even the game wardens are afflicted, normally, with the western habit of being pickup truck dependent. Ironically, their dress, featuring a uniform they have worn for decades, recalls when they were mostly cowhands, and, if they are wearing their official uniform, features cowboy boots and hats.

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Fri Sep 05, 2003 7:56 am

<blockquote id="quote"><font size="1" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica" id="quote">quote:<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"> Ironically, their dress, featuring a uniform they have worn for decades, recalls when they were mostly cowhands, and, if they are wearing their official uniform, features cowboy boots and hats.

Pat
<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"></blockquote id="quote"></font id="quote">

There are so many agencies that have the officers wear western attire for duty, both mounted and dismounted, it is impossible to count them. There was a period in my career where we wore western boots & hat as a uniform. It is highly impractical, you can't chase (foot) a 17 year old kid in shorts and tennis shoes when you are wearing leather soled boots along with all other equipment. Plus western boots that are built properly for riding are useless on the ground for police work.

Western tack and clothing as most people recognize it, is very unsuitable for service work. A horned saddle is "usually" built with a ground seat that promotes a poor/improper seat, is excessively heavy for daily extended use and generally NEVER fits the horse correctly. Add in these saddles usually do not look anything near professional in style and cleanliness and it is a bad combination. Use of split reins is not only sloppy in appearance it is an unsafe method for street use. The bridles often used are fine for trail rides and look that part, but offer little security in "excited" atmospheres.

Uniform trousers were not made to ride in or made from material designed to be user friendly in the saddle. The common practice of allowing mounted officers to wear "jeans" instead of uniform pants does nothing to promote the image that should be promoted. There is nothing wrong with a western hat except that it is usually worn in a less than professional manner and the more common creases used again do not promote a professional image. Metro style uniforms usually consist of helmet or campaign hat, uniform shirt w/badge, (name plate and qualification awards)leather jacket in the winter,riding breeches, english/military style riding boots w/spurs and an English type saddle. The helmet offers protection from thrown objects or in case of a fall on a paved roadway, the boots protect the riders legs from all types of injuries as does the leather jacket. The shirt and campaign hat offer no protection but do promote a professional appearance.

Western boots used in Police work are usually made with 10-12 inch tops which offer little if any protection in crowd control or normal street duties. Jeans or uniform trousers are fine for casual riding but are restrictive in movement both in & out of the saddle. Trousers are generally made from materials that are uncomfortable at best and offer little support when riding.

Mounted Police have a very significant amount of interaction with the public. Image is important in Police work, any experienced cop will tell you that a strong positive presence is much more effective than some level of force in quieting a situation, most of the time. "Metropolitan" style mounted police officers do garner a greater recognition factor than "cowboy cops." It does not mean that western style mounted units are less skilled or effective, it means that the public perceives them in a different manner than the metro style.

In working with various mounted units around the country I have witnessed a scene repeated many times. Myself and other instructors I work with all wear a metro style uniform with either a campaign hat or helmet, breeches, riding boots,leather gloves and leather jacket in the winter and crowd control operations. In many situations dealing with the public they will usually come to one of us when we are with western dressed mounted officers. A few times those persons were asked why they did so and the answer was almost always the same, they (we) looked more professional and the person felt confident in dealing with them. Also our picture is taken multiple times more than than our western counterparts, that never bothers any cops ego but it again raises public perception and recognition factors.

A mounted police officer is highly visable and is a tremendous public relations and law enforcement tool. A well trained and sharply uniformed mounted officer is worth 10 foot policemen. That is a statistical fact. The roots of this work is purely military and much could be and is learned from that.

Regards,
Ron Smith
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Fri Sep 05, 2003 8:50 am

In the area where I work, around Bristol, the Police have a mounted section. I just checked for a website and came up with this which I thought might be interesting -

http://www.avonandsomerset.police.uk/da ... _smith.asp




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Fri Sep 05, 2003 11:01 am

I agree with you Ron regarding your observations of the "Western Cowboy Look". The BP officers I encountered just didn't look very professional, from their tack to their dress they looked scruffy. They were wearing cowboy hats, but most BP officers wear them at the check stations and whatnot. I didn't notice what kind of "manly footwear" they had on. Next time I run into them, I'll ask a few questions about their take on horse patrol.

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Fri Sep 05, 2003 11:52 am

<blockquote id="quote"><font size="1" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica" id="quote">quote:<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"><i>Originally posted by Ron Smith</i>
<br /><blockquote id="quote"><font size="1" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica" id="quote">quote:<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"> Ironically, their dress, featuring a uniform they have worn for decades, recalls when they were mostly cowhands, and, if they are wearing their official uniform, features cowboy boots and hats.

Pat
<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"></blockquote id="quote"></font id="quote">

There are so many agenices that have the officers wear western attire for duty, both mounted and dismounted, it is impossible to count them. There was a period in my career where we wore western boots & hat as a uniform. It is highly impractical, you can't chase (foot) a 17 year old kid in shorts and tennis shoes when you are wearing leather soled boots along with all other equipment. Plus western boots that are built properly for riding are useless on the ground for police work.

Western tack and clothing as most people recognise it, is very unsuitable for service work. A horned saddle is "usually" built with a ground seat that promotes a poor/improper seat, is excessively heavy for daily extended use and generally NEVER fits the horse correctly. Add in these saddles usually do not look anything near professional in style and cleanliness and it is a bad combination. Use of split reins is not only sloppy in appearance it is an unsafe method for street use. The bridles often used are fine for trail rides and look that part, but offer little security in "excited" atmospheres.

Uniform trousers were not made to ride in or made from material designed to be user friendly in the saddle. The common practice of allowing mounted officers to wear "jeans" instead of uniform pants does nothing to promote the image that should be promoted. There is nothing wrong with a western hat except that it is usually worn in a less than professional manner and the more common creases used again do not promote a professional image. Metro style uniforms usually consist of helmet or campaign hat, uniform shirt w/badge, (name plate and qualification awards)leather jacket in the winter,riding breeches, english/military style riding boots w/spurs and an English type saddle. The helmet offers protection from thrown objects or in case of a fall on a paved roadway, the boots protect the riders legs from all types of injuries as does the leather jacket. The shirt and campaign hat offer no protection but do promote a professional appearance.

Western boots used in Police work are usually made with 10-12 inch tops which offer little if any protection in crowd control or normal street duties. Jeans or uniform trousers are fine for casual riding but are restrictive in movement both in & out of the saddle. Trousers are generally made from materials that are uncomfortable at best and offer little support when riding.

Mounted Police have a very significant amount of interaction with the public. Image is important in Police work, any experienced cop will tell you that a strong positive presence is much more effective than some level of force in quieting a situation, most of the time. "Metropolitan" style mounted police officers do garner a greater recognition factor than "cowboy cops." It does not mean that western style mounted units are less skilled or effective, it means that the public perceives them in a different manner than the metro style.

In working with various mounted units around the country I have witnessed a scene repeated many times. Myself and other instructors I work with all wear a metro style uniform with either a campaign hat or helmet, breeches, riding boots,leather gloves and leather jacket in the winter and crowd control operations. In many situations dealing with the public they will usually come to one of us when we are with western dressed mounted officers. A few times those persons were asked why they did so and the answer was almost always the same, they (we) looked more professional and the person felt confident in dealing with them. Also our picture is taken multiple times more than than our western counterparts, that never bothers any cops ego but it again raises public perception and recognition factors.

A mounted police officer is highly visible and is a tremendous public relations and law enforcement tool. A well trained and sharply uniformed mounted officer is worth 10 foot policemen. That is a statistical fact. The roots of this work is purely military and much could be and is learned from that.

Regards,
Ron Smith


<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"></blockquote id="quote"></font id="quote">

I found Ron's remarks regarding uniforms to be fascinating. A lot more goes into uniforms than we might imagine. I suspect with police there's a much higher appearance aspect than there is in military uniforms. Most police forms are based, at least remotely, to some degree on military uniforms, but the field uniform of a soldier is much more an item of equipment than most imagine, while the field uniform of a policeman is both an item of equipment and a psychological message to the general public.

As everybody here knows, I'm of the minority group here who normally rides a western saddle and always wears jeans while riding. I normally wear cowboy boots also, or packers. Still, for some reason, in the rare instances in which I run into a mounted policeman I always think it looks odd to see them wearing cowboy boots and hats, as well as using western tack. That might be because I strongly associate all those things with working cows, and to see a person on horseback dressed that way, with police uniform and badge, looks a little peculiar to me. Maybe that is just me. I note that the Denver mounted police, who were in danger of being eliminated last I was aware, use various western saddles, cowboy boots, and hats. The tack might be their own, and the horses are donated horses. Way back they dressed in a different fashion with riding boots and breeches. I think the old boot and breeches look was much more professional in appearance for an urban policeman, which i swhat they are.

I feel differently about rural policemen, but again this is probably a matter of being accustomed to the other look. Sheriff's deputies and game wardens, as well as park rangers, etc., I expect to be out in the boonies all day everyday, so the cowboy hat and jeans look appropriate there. Most of these folks do not ride, and any more most do wear duty boots. Still, on the rare occasions that you find one on horseback, they look appropriate, and you expect them to be on a western saddle. With game wardens in particular, you expect that they might have to drag something, so a good western saddle (which is not what urban police forces that use western saddles normally have), looks appropriate.

As an aside, it is probably just me, but I really dislike the use of baseball hats for regular police uniforms. Baseball hats have spread into everything, and now their used as a duty hat for some folks. Around here the Highway Patrol abandoned their peak hats for campaign hats, and now a few of the city policeman have done that also, but the game wardens sometimes wear baseball hats instead of their cowboy hats, and the sheriffs sometimes do the same. Baseball hats, IMHO, are about he most worthless outdoors hat imaginable, and there's no point on elevating yourself up in the atmosphere on a horse and then putting on a baseball cap to protect your head. There's a lot to be said for riding helmets, and if a person is going to be out in the sun doing something, and isn't wearing a riding helmet, a broad brimmed hat is the best option. About a decade ago, as amazing as it might seem, one of the branches of the federal government actually issued an advisory to farmers asking them to do just that, and criticizing feed companies for passing out baseball hats. Well, okay, rant over.

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Fri Sep 05, 2003 3:58 pm

Originally posted by David Webb
In the area where I work, around Bristol, the Police have a mounted section. I just checked for a website and came up with this which I thought might be interesting -

http://www.avonandsomerset.police.uk/da ... _smith.asp




David Webb
Interesting to see how the saddle accommodates various items. The one appears to be a night stick that is afixed to the saddle.

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Fri Sep 05, 2003 4:01 pm

Here's an interesting item noting that German military police have been assigned to patrol a US military facility in Germany. Apparently, after looking at increased security problems, and how to address them, the Germans determined that mounted patrols would work well. The item (which appears midway through this page) also noted that this pulled the officers away from other duties, such as patrolling soccer games, but that they could be reassigned to their normal task if a soccer game or demonstration occurred.

When this page is fully loaded up, you can click on the smaller photos and they'll come up as larger ones. This is worth doing, as there's some interesting tack details, including that these officers are riding with bit and bradoon.

http://home.mannheim.army.mil/CommunityLife/default.htm


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Fri Sep 05, 2003 6:30 pm

It appears that the saddles these officers are riding are Stubben Siegfried MF Specials. These are made almost exclusively for German Mounted Police, although they are switching to the Stubben Scout as the MF's need replacement.

Those bridles are a Police model we make for them and many other agencies as well. Stubben is actually the largest maker of Police saddles in the world, it is just not advertised.

What is strange is that the Army is resisting the use of horses in patrol functions for Post and housing Security. But many other branches are using Mounted Patrols. The Air Force is establishing mounted units at a number of Bases. Dallas PD has been sending one of its trainers to help them establish these Patrols. The Army however feels that a MP in a HUMVEE is better suited, although the HUMVEE reuires 4 mechanics to keep it in operation and you can't see or hear from one like you can from a horse. And most officers will not leave the vehicle to inspect situations of suspicion as readily as mounted officer will seek out the problem and identify it more readily.

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Fri Sep 05, 2003 9:02 pm

<blockquote id="quote"><font size="1" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica" id="quote">quote:<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"><i>Originally posted by Ron Smith</i>
<br />It appears that the saddles these officers are riding are Stubben Siegfried MF Specials. These are made almost exclusively for German Mounted Police, although they are switching to the Stubben Scout as the MF's need replacement.

Those bridles are a Police model we make for them and many other agencies as well. Stubben is actually the largest maker of Police saddles in the world, it is just not advertised.

What is strange is that the Army is resisting the use of horses in patrol functions for Post and housing Security. But many other branches are using Mounted Patrols. The Air Force is establishing mounted units at a number of Bases. Dallas PD has been sending one of its trainers to help them establish these Patrols. The Army however feels that a MP in a HUMVEE is better suited, although the HUMVEE reuires 4 mechanics to keep it in operation and you can't see or hear from one like you can from a horse. And most officers will not leave the vehicle to inspect situations of suspiscion as readily as mounted officer will seek out the problem and identify it more readily.

Regards,
Ron Smith
<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"></blockquote id="quote"></font id="quote">

From my experience, the major issue with US mounted patrols from an MP perspective is liability. The Active component lacks sufficient trainers for riding, so if a soldier gets injured in the line of duty, some commander is going to get fried.

ok - here I go stirring up the pot (I've been quiet lately)

Most of the European police equestrian units maintain active riding schools (this is where I obtained my current horse), and members are trained in dressage, jumping, etc. -here I go on my soap box- I think that this approach to training will produce a far better mounted policeman than the "cowboy" approach to most mounted units in the States. This really struck home to me when I was able to view and participate in some of the training of the Household Cav and getting to know some members of the National Police in The Netherlands.

Now considering the cadre of riding instructors of most of the these units - a significant percentage of them are active competitors in equestrian events (tent pegging/skill at arms, eventing, dressage). In my humble opinion, the average mounted policemen in the US will never match up to the average mounted policemen as those in other countries that place such a high priority in training.

Sorry for rambling....I'm off my box....

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Fri Sep 05, 2003 9:23 pm

Jeff is right on the money, not a soapbox.

European Mounted Police are far superior to US Mounted Police overall in riding skills. There are some units in the US that take riding seriously and do well, but they are few and far between. Mostly it is the trainers at these depts that are skilled and they are limited in how much they can teach by time, money and administrative understanding.

Riding in the US Mounted Police community is not taken as seriously as it is in other countries, not only Europe but in some ares of the middle East and Central and South America. Most foriegn police units send their trainees through a riding course that are at least 16 weeks many are longer. Then skills are improved upon asd the officer works in the unit.

The US Army has the abilty to get trainers from here an abroad and the MOS can be easily written to satisfy any liabilty issues. In fact the 35 Horsemanship/Horsemastership manuals would cover it with some minor modifications. That is just one example.

Most of my teaching at Mounted Police Schools is either Color Guard protocol, saddle fitting and equine anatomy or Equitation. If we can get 4 hours approved in riding time I am lucky, but I can get 2-4 hours for saddle fitting, which is important but equitation is always too little.

Good points Jeff.

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Sat Sep 06, 2003 7:49 am

As a twice certified riding instructor, a state certified mounted police instructor trainer & drill master and a registered show judge I get to see about 300-400 mounted police, mounted deputies, posse and mounted auxiliary riders throughout the year. It is not always a pretty sight. An interesting trend is that many volunteer units are better trained than full-time units in mounted skills. Not just horsemanship, but crowd management and patrolling as well. This is a function of time and training budgets and background skills. Most regular mounted officers were police officers first and came to mounted with little or no horsemanship skills. Whereas, volunteers are generally horse people who get involved in mounted law enforcement as community service. This is an interesting topic and as one who has been responsible for training a good number of mounted officers, I am greatly interested in these comments.
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Sat Sep 06, 2003 8:22 am

<blockquote id="quote"><font size="1" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica" id="quote">quote:<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"><i>Originally posted by Jim Ottevaere</i>
<br />As a twice certified riding instructor, a state certified mounted police instructor trainer & drill master and a registered show judge I get to see about 300-400 mounted police, mounted deputies, posse and mounted auxiliary riders throughout the year. It is not always a pretty sight. An interesting trend is that many volunteer units are better trained than full-time units in mounted skills. Not just horsemanship, but crowd management and patrolling as well. This is a function of time and training budgets and background skills. Most regular mounted officers were police officers first and came to mounted with little or no horsemanship skills. Whereas, volunteers are generally horse people who get involved in mounted law enforcement as community service. This is an interesting topic and as one who has been responsible for training a good number of mounted officers, I am greatly interested in these comments.
<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"></blockquote id="quote"></font id="quote">

Jim - didn't someone make a comment in the recent past that we were lacking in colorful topics? [:p]

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Sat Sep 06, 2003 8:38 am

<blockquote id="quote"><font size="1" face="Verdana, Arial, Helvetica" id="quote">quote:<hr height="1" noshade id="quote"><i>Originally posted by Jim Ottevaere</i>
<br />As a twice certified riding instructor, a state certified mounted police instructor trainer & drill master and a registered show judge I get to see about 300-400 mounted police, mounted deputies, posse and mounted auxiliary riders throughout the year. It is not always a pretty sight. An interesting trend is that many volunteer units are better trained than full-time units in mounted skills. Not just horsemanship, but crowd management and patrolling as well. This is a function of time and training budgets and background skills. Most regular mounted officers were police officers first and came to mounted with little or no horsemanship skills. Whereas, volunteers are generally horse people who get involved in mounted law enforcement as community service. This is an interesting topic and as one who has been responsible for training a good number of mounted officers, I am greatly interested in these comments.
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Very interesting observations. I suspect this helps explain, to a very large degree, why mounted police are under used or wholly absent where they could be used to great effect.

I happen to use a retired police chief as an expert in various cases from time to time. A while back I happened to visit with him regarding local bicycle and motorcycle police use. He was somewhat critical of bicycle police, indicating that they were not as effective as bicycle policemen sometimes suggested. He felt differently about motorcycle police, however, and felt they were very effective, when the officers would go out with the motorcycles. Apparently there was a bit of discretion on the part of the officer as to when they would patrol on motorcycle, which might make some sense given our weather.

One of the topics that I brought up with him in connection with this was that of costs. Given as the local motorcycle policemen ride Harley-Davidsons, and given as Harley-Davidsons are a very expensive motorcycle, I thought that this must amount to a fairly expensive proposition for the city, given as they cannot be used 365 days a year. Not at all, I learned. The motorcycles are actually leased directly from Harley-Davidson and a nominal rate. Harley apparently puts some distinctive symbols on their motorcycle model. Then, when the lease is up, they sell them as a collector item, and make more than they would have. In essence, the city really doesn't have any costs into the motorcycle.

I bring this up as one of the stark contrasts between some US city mounted forces and the European ones we are seeing depicted has to do with the horseflesh. Not that US police horses are bad, but at least some US forces, like the City of Denver, rely on donated horses. Folks do not generally donate the best horse you can get. And other mounted outfits, such as the ones that Jim mentions, rely on volunteers, which means the horses probably vary quite a bit. In some areas of the west even regular rural officers who patrol still do so in the old western tradition in which the horse and all the tack is provided by the officer, not the agency. Indeed, one add I saw a while back for a highly specialized game warden (tribal game warden) required that the officer provide his own horse, all the tack, and a trailer.


Pat
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