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Today is Flag Day in the United States
1623 The first breach-of-promise lawsuit, a now extinct cause of action, was filed by Rev Gerville Pooley against
Cicely Jordan. Rev. Pooley lost the action.
1775 The Continental Army is created. So today is the birthday of the U.S. Army.
1777 Continental Congress adopts the Stars & Stripes as the national flag.
1777 John Paul Jones takes command of the USS Ranger.
1789 Capt William Bligh and HMS Bounty loyalists reach Timor in a small boat, a major feat in nautical navigation and seamanship.
1805 Robert Anderson, Maj Gen, U.S., born.
1811 Harriet Beecher Stowe, author ("Uncle Tom's Cabin"), born.
1814 Wellington thanks his army for its performance in the Peninsula.
1836 Thomas Wilberforce Egan, Brig Gen, U.S., born.
1841 The first Canadian parliament opens in Kingston, Ontario.
1846 California Republic proclaimed in Sonoma
1863 Battle of Second Winchester, Virginia
1864 Battle of Pine Mountain, Gen Leonidas Polk killed in action
1900 Hawaiian Republic becomes the US Territory of Hawaii
1917 Gen Pershing and staff arrives in Paris during WW I.
Pershing a month later.
1919 First nonstop air crossing of Atlantic by Alcock and Brown leaves Newfoundland.
1928 Ernesto "Che" Guevara Serna, Argentine born Cuban revolutionary and jailer, born.
1935 Gran Chaco War between Bolivia and Paraguay officially ends.
1936 Oranienburg Concentration Camp opens
1940 Germans occupy Paris.
1940 Germans open Auschwitz.
1941 Ground broken for Boeing Plant II in Wichita KS
1942 First US Launcher, Rocket, Antitank, M-1, the original "bazooka", produced in Bridgeport Ct.
1942 Walt Disney's "Bambi" is released, thereby starting the sad anthropomorphizing of the natural world by Disney.
1943 Japanese form the collaborationist "Indian National Army".
1944 First B-29 raid against mainland Japan
1982 Argentina surrenders to the UK in the Falkland Islands ending the 74-day war.
Congressional Medals of Honor awarded for action on this day:
DURHAM, JAMES R.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company E, 12th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 14 June 1863. Citation: Led his command over the stone wall, where he was wounded.
FOX, NICHOLAS: Private, Company H, 28th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Port Hudson, La., 14 June 1863. Citation: Made 2 trips across an open space, in the face of the enemy's concentrated fire, and secured water for the sick and wounded.
LOVERING, GEORGE M.: First Sergeant, Company I, 4th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Port Hudson, La., 14 June 1863. Citation: During a momentary confusion in the ranks caused by other troops rushing upon the regiment, this soldier, with coolness and determination, rendered efficient aid in preventing a panic among the troops.
PATTERSON, JOHN T.: Principal Musician, 122d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 14 June 1863. Citation: With one companion, voluntarily went in front of the Union line, under a heavy fire from the enemy, and carried back a helpless wounded comrade, thus saving him from death or capture.
ROBINSON, ELBRIDGE: Private, Company C, 122d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 14 June 1863. Citation: With 1 companion, voluntarily went in front of the Union line, under a heavy fire from the enemy, and carried back a helpless, wounded comrade, thus saving him from death or capture.
FITZGERALD, JOHN: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Citation: For heroism and gallantry in action at Cuzco, Cuba, 14 June 1898.
QUICK, JOHN HENRY: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Citation: In action during the battle of Cuzco, Cuba, 14 June 1898. Distinguishing himself during this action, Quick signaled the U.S.S. Dolphin on 3 different occasions while exposed to a heavy fire from the enemy.
STOCKHAM, FRED W. (Army Medal): Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 96th Company, 2d Battalion, 6th Regiment. Place and date: In Bois-de-Belleau, France, 13-14 June 1918. Citation: During an intense enemy bombardment with high explosive and gas shells which wounded or killed many members of the company, G/Sgt. Stockham, upon noticing that the gas mask of a wounded comrade was shot away, without hesitation, removed his own gas mask and insisted upon giving it to the wounded man, well knowing that the effects of the gas would be fatal to himself. He continued with undaunted courage and valor to direct and assist in the evacuation of the wounded, until he himself collapsed from the effects of gas, dying as a result thereof a few days later. His courageous conduct undoubtedly saved the lives of many of his wounded comrades and his conspicuous gallantry and spirit of self-sacrifice were a source of great inspiration to all who served with him.
URBAN, MATT: Lieutenant Colonel (then Captain), 2d Battalion, 60th Infantry Regiment, 9th Infantry Division, World War II. Place and date: Renouf, France, 14 June to 3 September 1944. Lieutenant Colonel (then Captain) Matt Urban, l 12-22-2414, United States Army, who distinguished himself by a series of bold, heroic actions, exemplified by singularly outstanding combat leadership, personal bravery, and tenacious devotion to duty, during the period 14 June to 3 September 1944 while assigned to the 2d Battalion, 60th Infantry Regiment, 9th Infantry Division. On 14 June, Captain Urban's company, attacking at Renouf, France, encountered heavy enemy small arms and tank fire. The enemy tanks were unmercifully raking his unit's positions and inflicting heavy casualties. Captain Urban, realizing that his company was in imminent danger of being decimated, armed himself with a bazooka. He worked his way with an ammo carrier through hedgerows, under a continuing barrage of fire, to a point near the tanks. He brazenly exposed himself to the enemy fire and, firing the bazooka, destroyed both tanks. Responding to Captain Urban's action, his company moved forward and routed the enemy. Later that same day, still in the attack near Orglandes, Captain Urban was wounded in the leg by direct fire from a 37mm tank-gun. He refused evacuation and continued to lead his company until they moved into defensive positions for the night. At 0500 hours the next day, still in the attack near Orglandes, Captain Urban, though badly wounded, directed his company in another attack. One hour later he was again wounded. Suffering from two wounds, one serious, he was evacuated to England. In mid-July, while recovering from his wounds, he learned of his unit's severe losses in the hedgerows of Normandy. Realizing his unit's need for battle-tested leaders, he voluntarily left the hospital and hitchhiked his way back to his unit hear St. Lo, France. Arriving at the 2d Battalion Command Post at 1130 hours, 25 July, he found that his unit had jumped-off at 1100 hours in the first attack of Operation Cobra." Still limping from his leg wound, Captain Urban made his way forward to retake command of his company. He found his company held up by strong enemy opposition. Two supporting tanks had been destroyed and another, intact but with no tank commander or gunner, was not moving. He located a lieutenant in charge of the support tanks and directed a plan of attack to eliminate the enemy strong-point. The lieutenant and a sergeant were immediately killed by the heavy enemy fire when they tried to mount the tank. Captain Urban, though physically hampered by his leg wound and knowing quick action had to be taken, dashed through the scathing fire and mounted the tank. With enemy bullets ricocheting from the tank, Captain Urban ordered the tank forward and, completely exposed to the enemy fire, manned the machine gun and placed devastating fire on the enemy. His action, in the face of enemy fire, galvanized the battalion into action and they attacked and destroyed the enemy position. On 2 August, Captain Urban was wounded in the chest by shell fragments and, disregarding the recommendation of the Battalion Surgeon, again refused evacuation. On 6 August, Captain Urban became the commander of the 2d Battalion. On 15 August, he was again wounded but remained with his unit. On 3 September, the 2d Battalion was given the mission of establishing a crossing-point on the Meuse River near Heer, Belgium. The enemy planned to stop the advance of the allied Army by concentrating heavy forces at the Meuse. The 2d Battalion, attacking toward the crossing-point, encountered fierce enemy artillery, small arms and mortar fire which stopped the attack. Captain Urban quickly moved from his command post to the lead position of the battalion. Reorganizing the attacking elements, he personally led a charge toward the enemy's strong-point. As the charge moved across the open terrain, Captain Urban was seriously wounded in the neck. Although unable to talk above a whisper from the paralyzing neck wound, and in danger of losing his life, he refused to be evacuated until the enemy was routed and his battalion had secured the crossing-point on the Meuse River. Captain Urban's personal leadership, limitless bravery, and repeated extraordinary exposure to enemy fire served as an inspiration to his entire battalion. His valorous and intrepid actions reflect the utmost credit on him and uphold the noble traditions of the United States.
WISE, HOMER L.: Staff Sergeant. U.S. Army, Company L, 142d Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: Magliano, Italy, 14 June 1944. Citation: While his platoon was pinned down by enemy small-arms fire from both flanks, he left his position of comparative safety and assisted in carrying 1 of his men, who had been seriously wounded and who lay in an exposed position, to a point where he could receive medical attention. The advance of the platoon was resumed but was again stopped by enemy frontal fire. A German officer and 2 enlisted men, armed with automatic weapons, threatened the right flank. Fearlessly exposing himself, he moved to a position from which he killed all 3 with his submachinegun. Returning to his squad, he obtained an Ml rifle and several antitank grenades, then took up a position from which he delivered accurate fire on the enemy holding up the advance. As the battalion moved forward it was again stopped by enemy frontal and flanking fire. He procured an automatic rifle and, advancing ahead of his men, neutralized an enemy machinegun with his fire. When the flanking fire became more intense he ran to a nearby tank and exposing himself on the turret, restored a jammed machinegun to operating efficiency and used it so effectively that the enemy fire from an adjacent ridge was materially reduced thus permitting the battalion to occupy its objective.
BLEAK, DAVID B.: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Medical Company 223d Infantry Regiment, 40th Infantry Division. Place and date: Vicinity of Minari-gol, Korea, 14 June 1952. Citation: Sgt. Bleak, a member of the medical company, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. As a medical aidman, he volunteered to accompany a reconnaissance patrol committed to engage the enemy and capture a prisoner for interrogation. Forging up the rugged slope of the key terrain, the group was subjected to intense automatic weapons and small arms fire and suffered several casualties. After administering to the wounded, he continued to advance with the patrol. Nearing the military crest of the hill, while attempting to cross the fire-swept area to attend the wounded, he came under hostile fire from a small group of the enemy concealed in a trench. Entering the trench he closed with the enemy, killed 2 with bare hands and a third with his trench knife. Moving from the emplacement, he saw a concussion grenade fall in front of a companion and, quickly shifting his position, shielded the man from the impact of the blast. Later, while ministering to the wounded, he was struck by a hostile bullet but, despite the wound, he undertook to evacuate a wounded comrade. As he moved down the hill with his heavy burden, he was attacked by 2 enemy soldiers with fixed bayonets. Closing with the aggressors, he grabbed them and smacked their heads together, then carried his helpless comrade down the hill to safety. Sgt. Bleak's dauntless courage and intrepid actions reflect utmost credit upon himself and are in keeping with the honored traditions of the military service.
SPEICHER, CLIFTON T.: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company F, 223d Infantry Regiment, 40th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Minarigol, Korea, 14 June 1952. Citation: Cpl. Speicher distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. While participating in an assault to secure a key terrain feature, Cpl. Speicher's squad was pinned down by withering small-arms mortar, and machine gun fire. Although already wounded he left the comparative safety of his position, and made a daring charge against the machine gun emplacement. Within 10 yards of the goal, he was again wounded by small-arms fire but continued on, entered the bunker, killed 2 hostile soldiers with his rifle, a third with his bayonet, and silenced the machine gun. Inspired by this incredible display of valor, the men quickly moved up and completed the mission. Dazed and shaken, he walked to the foot of the hill where he collapsed and died. Cpl. Speicher's consummate sacrifice and unflinching devotion to duty reflect lasting glory upon himself and uphold the noble traditions of the military service.
Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:
RATCLIFFE William: World War One. Private. 2nd Battalion, The South Lancashire Regiment, British Army. Citation: On 14 June 1917 at Messines, Belgium, after an enemy trench had been captured, Private Ratcliffe located an enemy machine-gun which was firing on his comrades from the rear, and single-handed, on his own initiative, immediately rushed the machine-gun position and bayoneted the crew. He then brought the gun back into action in the front line. Private Ratcliffe had displayed similar gallantry and resource on previous occasions.
Last supplemented on June 14, 2012.
1215 King John puts his seal to the Magna Carta. It stated, in the 1215 version:
1607 James Fort in Jamestown completed.
1629 Brothers David, Lewis and Thomas Kirke's privateering expedition reach Gaspé'.
1776 Benedict Arnold orders Montreal burnt as the Continental Army retreat. The citizens put the fire out.
1811 John Jacob Astor's ship Tonquin attacked by local Nootka on Vancouver Island who kill the sailors and destroy the ship the following day.
1814 Major General Jacob Brown leads American raiders across Lake Erie to attack Port Dover and Long Point Ontario.
1815 Selkirk settlers, dependent on buffalo for survival, forced to leave for Upper Canada because of harassment by Metis hunters. The North West Company traders wanting to challenge the authority of the Hudson's Bay Company were backing the Metis nationalists in this struggle. The settlement was reestablished the following August.
1859 Hudson Bay Company pig breaks into the potato patch of American squatter in Washington; nearly resulting in a British-American war over ownership of one of the San Juan Islands.
1873 American whisky/fur traders massacre Assiniboine Indians in their camp in the Cypress Hills, Saskatchewan. This event lead to formation of the North-West Mounted Police.
1877 Henry Flipper graduates from West Point, making him the first African American to do so. His time in West Point was difficult, due the prejudice of fellow cadets. He served, following graduation, with the 10th Cavalry until 1882 when he was dismissed from the U.S. Army following a Court Martial in which he was largely found innocent, but in which he did receive a bad conduct finding and received a sentence far harsher than generally regarded as the norm. He thereafter worked as an engineer and sometimes served in government service in other capacities. His status as an officer was posthumously restored in the 1970s.
1888 Kaiser Wilhelm II became the Kaiser.
1898 The Alger Light Artillery of Cheyenne entered US service as "Battery A, Wyoming Light Artillery."
1909: From the Casper Star Tribune's history column, item's that ran this calendar week in the past:
http://www.trib.com/articles/2009/06/14 ... 8030de.txt
This is an interesting item because it pertains to the ongoing private range wars that were only just beginning to end in this period of time. Cattle range wars of the 1890s had given way to wars against sheepmen shortly thereafter, with raids on sheep camps being common in some areas.
There's no truth to that myth at all, but like a lot of things during the range war period, the basic nature of the conflict was more complicated than generally recalled.
They myth was genuinely believed, even though there were always a few cattlemen who kept sheep. And surprisingly, there were some individuals who crossed back and forth from cattlemen to sheepmen, and vice versa, and who became caught up on one, or both sides, of the conflict. Sometimes innocently, sometimes not so much.
Anyhow, what I think really contributed to the conflict is that there were enormous bands of migratory sheep that came into the cattle ranges in the 1890s. It wasn't so much the sheep as an animal that caused the conflict as it was the sheep ranching practices that came in at that time that poisoned things. All of this was prior to the Taylor Grazing Act, so the Federal domain was open. The open nature of it had never really been well suited to ranching of any kind after the first cattle herds came in, so the practice quite rapidly became to recognize the range controlled by ranches based on their grazing, and to organize various ranges into districts. This was an imperfect system, and the practice of the state and Federal governments in encouraging it, while the Federal government also encouraged continued homesteading lead to the early "big" v "small" cattle wars.
In the case of the cattle v. sheep wars that followed, what occurred is that enormous bands of sheep owned by remote ranchers in Idaho came into the country under the control of sheep herders. The herders and the sheep ranches did not recognize any ranges or districts, and they covered enormous ranges. Sheep coming out of Idaho literally wondered hundreds of miles, maybe up to a 1,000 or more, over the course of a year. Sheep bands of this type were extremely destructive, as they were able to basically graze an area down to dirt and move on. As the herders and owners did not recognize the authority of grazing organizations or districts, they were not subject to any of the practices the cattlemen had organized to police themselves. This lead to heated conflicts, and also lead to the belief that cattle and sheep could not exist on the same range. Of course, nothing could really exist on a range grazed by sheep in this fashion for some time thereafter.
In order to combat the huge migratory herds, cattlemen began to create and enforce districts restricting sheep, which were not recognized by the sheepmen. In the more extreme examples, the cattlemen imposed "deadlines", which were literally what they proclaimed themselves to be. If the sheepmen crossed them, they might be killed. During the summer, I frequently drive or ride over a ridge in this area which is still called "The Deadline" as this is what it was.
By the early 20th Century the huge migratory bands were gone, but they had been replaced by smaller local bands of sheep. By this point, there was really no reason for the sheep wars to continue on, but a type of guerrilla war had broken out and it continued on. The warfare consisted of "sheep raids", which involved attacking a herder's camp and scattering the sheep. On more than one occasion the herders were killed. Again, I cross a spring repeatedly during the summer months which is called "Grave Springs" as a sheepherder's grave is nearby, the victim of a sheep raid.
By around 1905 law enforcement was making an effort to stop the sheep raids, but convicting raiders proved to be impossible up until the Spring Creek Raid in 1909. In that instance the nature of the raid proved to be shocking, and public opinion was turned. As a result, the raiders were convicted, to their surprise. An interesting aspect of the case was that one of the raiders was armed with a Remington Model 8 in .25 Remington which made him quite identifiable as it was the only one in area. The Spring Creek Raid brought an end to the range wars in Wyoming.
On that, it might be worth noting that the cattlemen v. sheepmen range wars had continued on in the Big Horns and Big Horn Basin several years past their end everywhere else. This did not reflect that there more sheep in this area than elsewhere, although there were a lot of them (Arminto Wyoming became the largest sheep shipping point in the United States in the 20th Century), but rather than this area was more lawless than other areas of the state, and always had been. Sheep were already dominating the livestock industry around Rawlins Wyoming and the Red Desert, even though those areas had been the first locations where problems had developed. In southern Wyoming the last flicker of any sort of this thing might be regarded as the Willie Nickell killing for which Tom Horn was convicted. I wouldn't say that this was part of the cattlemen v. sheepmen war, although the Nickells were sheepmen, but that did mark the end of private war far in southern Wyoming.
Thanks. The range wars are sort of a favorite topic of mine (while largely off the focus of the site), as it's local history, and also because I think that they're very poorly understood. They were fictionalized as they were occuring, and the fictionalization of them has really impacted how we view them. The Virginian, for example, includes a fictionalized account of Wyoming's range wars of the 1890s within it. That portrayal, but reversed as to the "good" and "bad" sides has been the basis for many, many, later works.
Yes and no. And that story itself is a lot more complicated than generally portrayed.
There were actually a whole series of Homestead Acts, starting off with the original one passed during the Civil War. The hallmark of all of them was that none of them granted enough land to make a living off of, in the West. They were of adequate size for East of the Miss, where the people who drafted the laws lived, but they were inadequate, for the most part, for the arid West. Over time the land allotments granted under the homestead laws was increased, and the mineral rights were withdrawn from the grants, but they never achieved a size that would actually support anything other than a bare bones agricultural unit.
That fact has often been noted, but what's often omitted from the discussion is that a homestead entrant could purchase additional lands. On the other hand, most couldn't afford to.
Given all this, a system developed which accommodate the law to the conditions, and which was recognized by all the participants, including the State governments. Generally, homestead entrants did homestead a water resource. After they did that, they then grazed the area associated with the water course, a range much greater than what they'd homesteaded. During the summer, the cattle herds were pooled and grazed on the public domain. Brandings were often done after the herds had been pooled.
The practice of running herds from various ranches in one common region during the summer was recognized by the State, which recognized various grazing associations or organizations as the administering body for this practice. In Wyoming, the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association occupied this position, and even though it was a private corporate body, it received state sanction for this. Livestock detectives, who had the power of arrest, were actually employees of the WSGA. The WSGA was so big that it actually extended up into Montana, but most regions of the West had similiar organizations. Theodore Roosevelt, if I recall correctly, was a founding member of one such organization on the Little Missouri.
A person had to cooperate with the organization to effectively graze in most regions, and a person's role in it was assigned according to the number of cattle they had. This naturally created a lot of resentment on the part of very small operators, who felt that they were not treated fairly, and who sometimes chose to operate outside the organizations. This created tensions in and of itself, as the organizations tended to feel that people who operated without their sanction were probably operating illegally in other ways. Sometimes they really were, as rustling was very easy to engage in at the time. Controlling it was difficult due to the wide open nature of things, but it was also made more difficult by the fact that most top hands took part of their pay in cattle. Almost all really top hands hoped to build up a herd that way, and when they had enough, they often started their own operations. FWIW, this practice was still common as recently as 15 or so years ago, although with land prices being what they are, I don't think that it's continuing on.
That system had a fatal flaw in that the Federal government continued to view all public domain as open to entry by homesteaders and mining claimants. So what older operations regarded as their range, a belief encouraged by the State, could be carved up by new entrants. In popular literature, post Virginian, the new entrants are always sort of benevolent common men, but the practice was extremely disruptive. As time went on, the lands that new entrants claimed tended to be poor, as prior entrants had claimed or purchased the water resources. So some resentment was natural.
The cattle v cattle wars broke out over these problems. The legendary Johnson County War really amounted to an extra-legal effort by members of the WSGA to address what they regarded as a rustling problem in Natrona County and Johnson County, Wyoming. The problem there was that the small holders they were after also tended to be later entrants, so there was a contest, to some degree, as to whose rights were superior.
The Army was in fact used in at least two occasions I'm aware of.
The Army and militia had a role in the Johnson County War.
Prior to bringing up the Texas invaders, in the Johnson County War, the WSGA side had arranged for the governor to call up the militia so that it could not be called up to go to Johnson and Natrona Counties to suppress the invaders. So the militia had a negative role, in essence.
That actually worked too well, as the invaders were delayed by an April snowstorm, and their first action at the the Champion cabin took much longer than they had anticipated. This allowed ample time for the residents of Johnson County to rally and the invaders were besieged in a ranch house. At that point, therefore, they were hoping that the state would send them some help.
The governor, for his part, informed the Federal government, letting President Harrison know that a "state of insurrection" existed in Johnson County. As a result, President Harrison ordered troops from Ft. Mckinney at Sheridan Wyoming to go to the site of the siege and stop it. This took quite a bit of time, as invaders had ripped down the telegraph lines on their path of advancement to keep their targets from seeking help. That rapidly grew out of control, and the defending side took it up as well, meaning that it was difficult for the invaders' allies to wire for help. Cavalry from McKinney did arrive, however, after a time. At that point ,the commanding officer very wisely assessed the situation, which was very bad for the invaders, and refused to take a side. He did, however, inform the invaders that they were about to be overrun, which they knew, as the defending side, under the command of the Johnson County Sheriff, had constructed a moving breastworks and was edging up on firebombing range. He suggested to them that if they surrendered to him, he'd make sure they were taken to Ft. Fetterman under escorted arrest. They wisely chose that option. From there, they were taken by train to Ft. D. A. Russel, where they were held for trial, at the expense of Johnson County. The trial proved to be a disaster, with some critical witnesses going elsewhere (probably with encouragement), and there were no convictions. Johnson County was left with a big bill.
The other instance I'm aware of is the Lincoln County War in New Mexico. I'm very unfamiliar with the details of that conflict, but I do know that the Army was called out for a siege during it. The siege is well known, as Billy the Kid was a participant in it. In that instance, it's generally held that the commander sided with the besiegers improperly.
In almost all of the Western states, water law departs from English Common law, and oddly enough stems from mining law. Western mining law was developed by the miners themselves. If a person wants to get a good, if satiric, grasp of mining law, the movie "Paint Your Wagon" does a good job of explaining it.
The essence of western water law (and mining law) is First in Time, First in Right. The first person to come along and appropriate a water resource for a lawful purpose, owns it. The use need not be near source of appropriation, which came about originally due to mining water devices, but ultimately came to apply to irrigation conveyances. So there's a lot of instances in which the owner of a water right has the legal right to have the water cross another's property. This is a special type of easement. There's a great quote on this in a very old Wyoming case I'll dig up when I have a chance.
On the public domain, cattle can drink from anything they might run across. On your own land, however, you can exclude cattle from the banks, even if you don't own the water right. Cattle are free to drink from any stream, if the cattle have the right to be on the property. The right to apply the water out of the stream (including to impound it in ponds) is what the right ultimately addresses. Of course, having a prior right is very significant, as you can keep upstream users from using if you have a prior right, including a prior right simply to water cattle, and you can also use water over the right of any junior appropriator who seeks to "call" a junior right downstream.[/quote]
There's a great quote on this in a very old Wyoming case I'll dig up when I have a chance.
From Frank v. Hicks, 1894.
Still following up on this, I've noted that too, but I'm skeptical of these stories. One thing they fail to acknowledge is that a lot of top hands took part of their pay in cattle. After a few years, they often married and then homesteaded themselves. In that fashion, paying a hand in cattle was somewhat self defeating, but it would have been particularly so if that hand had taken out a homestead.
I would believe, however, that homesteads may very well have been taken out by family members. I believe that the author of "Letters of a Woman Homesteader" did that. Her husband was a Scottish born rancher, but she had taken out her own homestead nearby. This has been portrayed as her independent desire, which it may very well have been, but the advantage of having a spouse or child add to the ranch cost free likely did occur to some. I have seen the remnants of homesteads taken out by neighboring brothers who had originally apparently operated as one unit, but whom ultimately divided their operations for some reason.[/quote]
1909 Representatives from England, Australia and South Africa meet at Lord's to form the Imperial Cricket Conference.
1913 The Battle of Bud Bagsak, part of the Moro uprising, ends.
1916 President Wilson signs the act incorporating the Boy Scouts, the only Federally incorporated youth organization.
1917 The Espionage Act signed into law in the US.
1918 The U.S. Post Office began regularly scheduled airmail service between Washington and New York through Philadelphia.
1919 British Army Captain John Alcock and Royal Flying Corps Lt. Arthur Brown plow in nose-down landing in a peat bog in their Vickers Vimy bomber at Clifden, County Galway, Ireland, thereby making a somewhat ungraceful completion the first nonstop transatlantic flight. They won the £10,000 prize offered by the London Daily Mail and were knighted.
1940 Allied withdrawal from France begins, following French surrender.
1944 First RCAF fighter wings move into France after D-Day.
1944 U.S. commences landings on Saipan.
1944 Socialist (Co-operative Commonwealth Federation) come to power in Saskatchewan, forming the first Socialist government in North America.
1944 First B29 raid on Japan.
1945 Wyoming Governor Leslie Hunt proclaimed to day Infantry Day.
1973 Ottawa restricts export of gasoline and heating oil to slow down increase in export of these products.
Congressional Medals of Honor awarded for action on this day:
FALLON, THOMAS T.: Civil War. Private, Company K, 37th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Williamsburg, Va., 5 May 1862. At Fair Oaks, Va., 30-31 May 1862. At Big Shanty, Ga., 14-15 June 1864. Citation: At Williamsburg, Va., assisted in driving rebel skirmishers to their main line. Participated in action, at Fair Oaks, Va., though excused from duty because of disability. In a charge with his company at Big Shanty, Ga., was the first man on the enemy's works.
HALLOCK, NATHAN M.: Civil War. Private, Company K, 124th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Bristoe Station, Va., 15 June 1863. Citation: At imminent peril saved from death or capture a disabled officer of his company by carrying him under a hot musketry fire, to a place of safety.
HERINGTON, PITT B.: Civil War. Private, Company E, 11th lowa Infantry. Place and date: Near Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., 15 June 1864. Citation: With one companion and under a fierce fire of the enemy at close range, went to the rescue of a wounded comrade who had fallen between the lines and carried him to a place of safety.
MAYES, WILLIAM B.: Civil War. :Private, Company K, 11th lowa Infantry. Place and date: Near Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., 15 June 1864. Citation: With one companion and under a fierce fire from the enemy at short range went to the rescue of a wounded comrade who had fallen between the lines and carried him to a place of safety.
NUGENT, CHRISTOPHER: Civil War. Orderly Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Fort Henry, Crystal River, Fla., 15 June 1863. Reconnoitering on the Crystal River on this date and in charge of a boat from the Fort Henry, Orderly Sgt. Nugent ordered an assault upon a rebel breastwork fortification. In this assault, the orderly sergeant and his comrades drove a guard of 11 rebels into the swamp, capturing their arms and destroying their camp equipage while gallantly withholding fire to prevent harm to a woman among the fugitives. On 30 July 1863, he further proved his courage by capturing a boat off Depot Key, Fla., containing 2 men and a woman with their baggage.
STURGEON, JAMES K.: Civil War. Private, Company F, 46th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., 15 June 1864. Citation: Advanced beyond the lines, and in an encounter with 3 Confederates shot 2 and took the other prisoner.
O'CONNER, JAMES F.: Peace time award. Landsman, Engineer's Force, U.S. Navy. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Jean Sands, opposite the Norfolk Navy Yard, on the night of 15 June 1880, and rescuing from drowning a young girl who had fallen overboard.
SWEENEY, WILLIAM: Peace time award. Landsman, Engineer's Force, U.S. Navy. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Jean Sands, opposite the Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va., on the night of 15 June 1880, and rescuing from drowning a young girl who had fallen overboard.
Note the last two citations. These are the first I've run across for the rescuing of a civilian from a life threatening situation.
KELLEY, THOMAS G.: Vietnam War. Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy, River Assault Division 152. place and date: Ong Muong Canal, Kien Hoa province, Republic of Vietnam, 15 June 1969. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in the afternoon while serving as commander of River Assault Division 152 during combat operations against enemy aggressor forces. Lt. Comdr. (then Lt.) Kelley was in charge of a column of 8 river assault craft which were extracting 1 company of U.S. Army infantry troops on the east bank of the Ong Muong Canal in Kien Hoa province, when 1 of the armored troop carriers reported a mechanical failure of a loading ramp. At approximately the same time, Viet Cong forces opened fire from the opposite bank of the canal. After issuing orders for the crippled troop carrier to raise its ramp manually, and for the remaining boats to form a protective cordon around the disabled craft, Lt. Comdr. Kelley realizing the extreme danger to his column and its inability to clear the ambush site until the crippled unit was repaired, boldly maneuvered the monitor in which he was embarked to the exposed side of the protective cordon in direct line with the enemy's fire, and ordered the monitor to commence firing. Suddenly, an enemy rocket scored a direct hit on the coxswain's flat, the shell penetrating the thick armor plate, and the explosion spraying shrapnel in all directions. Sustaining serious head wounds from the blast, which hurled him to the deck of the monitor, Lt. Cmdr. Kelley disregarded his severe injuries and attempted to continue directing the other boats. Although unable to move from the deck or to speak clearly into the radio, he succeeded in relaying his commands through 1 of his men until the enemy attack was silenced and the boats were able to move to an area of safety. Lt. Comdr. Kelley's brilliant leadership, bold initiative, and resolute determination served to inspire his men and provide the impetus needed to carry out the mission after he was medically evacuated by helicopter. His extraordinary courage under fire, and his selfless devotion to duty sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:
ROGERS James: Second Boer War. Sergeant. South African Constabulary, South African Forces. Citation: On 15 June 1901, at Thaba 'Nchu, South Africa, during a skirmish, a party of the rearguard, consisting of a lieutenant, Sergeant Rogers and six men, was attacked by about 60 Boers. When the lieutenant's horse was shot, Sergeant Rogers rode back, took the lieutenant up behind and carried him for half a mile on his own horse. The sergeant then returned to within 400 yards of the enemy and rescued two other men who had lost their horses. Afterwards, he caught two horses and helped their owners to remount. This was done under heavy fire. The Boers were near enough to Sergeant Rogers to call upon him to surrender; his only answer was to continue firing.
CAMPBELL Frederick William World War One. Posthumous award. Lieutenant. 1st Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force. Citation: For most conspicuous bravery on 15th June, 1915, during the action at Givenchy. Lt. Campbell took two machine-guns over the parapet, arrived at the German first line with one gun, and maintained his position there, under very heavy rifle, machine-gun and bomb fire, notwithstanding the fact that almost the whole of his detachment had then been killed or wounded. When our supply of bombs had become exhausted, this Officer advanced his gun still further to an exposed position, and, by firing about 1,000 rounds, succeeded in holding back the enemy's counter-attack. This very gallant Officer was subsequently wounded, and has since died.
HUDSON Charles Edward: World War One. Lieutenant Colonel. Sherwood Foresters. British Army. Citation: Heroism in action near Asiago, Italy.
FOOTE Henry Robert Bowreman: World War Two. Lieutenant colonel. 7th Royal Tank Regiment, British Army. Citation: During the period 27 May/15 June 1942 in Libya, Lieutenant Colonel Foote commanded his battalion with outstanding courage and leadership, always being at the crucial point at the right time. On 6 June, although wounded, he continued to lead his battalion from an exposed position on the outside of a tank, and succeeded in defeating the enemy's attempt to encircle two Allied divisions. On 13 June, when a number of Allied tanks had been destroyed, he went on foot, "from one tank to another, to encourage the crews under intense artillery and anti-tank fire". By "his magnificent example the corridor was kept open and the Brigade was able to march through".
Last supplemented on 15 June 2012.
So are all you Brits breaking out the kegs of Newcastle Brown Ale and the like for big Magna Carta sealing parties?
Animadvertistine, ubicumque stes, fumum recta in faciem ferri?
2686 BC King Hammurabi of Babylon died at about age 45.
363 Emperor Julian marches back up the Tigris and burns his fleet of supply ships.
1487 Battle of Stoke Field, the final engagement of the Wars of the Roses.
1567 Mary Queen of Scots imprisoned in Lochleven Castle.
1654 Abdication of Queen Christina of Sweden.
1744 French make unsuccessful assault on Annapolis Royal.
1745 English fleet occupied Cape Breton on St. Lawrence River.
1755 British capture Fort Beausojour, Nova Scotia, and initiate the expulsion of the Acadians.
1833 John Wilson kills 19 year old Robert Lyon in the last duel in Upper Canada. Wilson was acquitted of murder and later became a judge of the Ontario Supreme Court.
1836 Wesley Merritt, Maj. Gen, US, born.
1837 Eli Long, Brig Gen, U.S., born.
1858 King Gustav V of Sweden born.
1890 A significant figure in the exploration of Alaska, Fred Fickett, retired from the military due to ailments he developed during the arduous exploration of the region. Flickett, and enlisted man, had a scientific mind and was a member of the Signal Corps at the time he was specifically to be assigned to a scientific exploration by Lieutenant Henry T. Allen. Illnesses acquired there forced his retirement. In civilian life, he became a lawyer in Arizona, where he also managed mining operations. He published a book on his experiences entitled: Narratives of Explorations in Alaska. While he lived to age 70, he never recovered his health.
1898 U.S. squadron bombards Santiago, Cuba.
1911 IBM founded as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company in Endicott, New York.
1940 Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain becomes Chief of State of Vichy France.
1940 USSR occupies Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia
1944 US 5th Army take Grosseto, Italy.
1944 US 1st Army crosses the Douvre River and capture St. Saveur in the Cotentin Peninsula.
1945 Sugar once allowed, on a restricted basis, for home canning in the US.
1947 Pravda denounced the Marshall Plan.
1958 Imre Nagy, Pál Maléter and other leaders of the 1956 Hungarian Uprising are executed.
1967 Neil Young and Buffalo Springfield, Jimi Hendrix , Janis Joplin , The Who , Otis Redding , the Mamas and the Papas , The Grateful Dead , The Byrds , Jefferson Airplane and Hugh Masekela appear at the Monterey Pop Festival.
1989 Imre Nagy reburied in Budapest.
Congressional Medals of Honor awarded for action on this day:
GREGG, JOSEPH O.: Civil War. Private, Company F, 133d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: Near the Richmond & Petersburg Ry., Va., 16 June 1864. Citation: Voluntarily returned to the breastworks which his regiment had been forced to abandon to notify 3 missing companies that the regiment was falling back; found the enemy already in the works, refused a demand to surrender, returning to his command under a concentrated fire, several bullets passing through his hat and clothing.
JACKSON, FREDERICK R.: Civil War. First Sergeant, Company F, 7th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At James Island, S.C., 16 June 1862. Citation: Having his left arm shot away in a charge on the enemy, he continued on duty, taking part in a second and a third charge until he fell exhausted from the loss of blood.
LEWIS, DEWITT CLINTON: Civil War. Captain, Company F, 97th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Secessionville, S.C., 16 June 1862. Citation: While retiring with his men before a heavy fire of can1ster shot at short range, returned in the face of the enemy's fire and rescued an exhausted private of his company who but for this timely action would have lost his life by drowning in the morass through which the troops were retiring.
McCARD, ROBERT HOWARD: World War Two. Posthumous award. Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 25 November 1918, Syracuse, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as platoon sergeant of Company A, 4th Tank Battalion, 4th Marine Division, during the battle for enemy Japanese-held Saipan, Marianas Islands, on 16 June 1944. Cut off from the other units of his platoon when his tank was put out of action by a battery of enemy 77mm. guns, G/Sgt. McCard carried on resolutely, bringing all the tank's weapons to bear on the enemy, until the severity of hostile fire caused him to order his crew out of the escape hatch while he courageously exposed himself to enemy guns by hurling hand grenades, in order to cover the evacuation of his men. Seriously wounded during this action and with his supply of grenades exhausted, G/Sgt. McCard then dismantled one of the tank's machineguns and faced the Japanese for the second time to deliver vigorous fire into their positions, destroying 16 of the enemy but sacrificing himself to insure the safety of his crew. His valiant fighting spirit and supreme loyalty in the face of almost certain death reflect the highest credit upon G/Sgt. McCard and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
SARNOSKI, JOSEPH R.: World War Two. Posthumous award. Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 43rd Bomber Group, Place and date: Over Buka Area, Solomon Islands, 16 June 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty. On 16 June 1943, 2d Lt. Sarnoski volunteered as bombardier of a crew on an important photographic mapping mission covering the heavily defended Buka area, Solomon Islands. When the mission was nearly completed, about 20 enemy fighters intercepted. At the nose guns, 2d Lt. Sarnoski fought off the first attackers, making it possible for the pilot to finish the plotted course. When a coordinated frontal attack by the enemy extensively damaged his bomber, and seriously injured 5 of the crew, 2d Lt. Sarnoski, though wounded, continued firing and shot down 2 enemy planes. A 20-millimeter shell which burst in the nose of the bomber knocked him into the catwalk under the cockpit. With indomitable fighting spirit, he crawled back to his post and kept on firing until he collapsed on his guns. 2d Lt. Sarnoski by resolute defense of his aircraft at the price of his life, made possible the completion of a vitally important mission.
ZEAMER, JAY JR.: World War Two. Major, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: Over Buka area, Solomon Islands, 16 June 1943. Citation: On 16 June 1943, Maj. Zeamer (then Capt.) volunteered as pilot of a bomber on an important photographic mapping mission covering the formidably defended area in the vicinity of Buka, Solomon Islands. While photographing the Buka airdrome. his crew observed about 20 enemy fighters on the field, many of them taking off. Despite the certainty of a dangerous attack by this strong force, Maj. Zeamer proceeded with his mapping run, even after the enemy attack began. In the ensuing engagement, Maj. Zeamer sustained gunshot wounds in both arms and legs, 1 leg being broken. Despite his injuries, he maneuvered the damaged plane so skillfully that his gunners were able to fight off the enemy during a running fight which lasted 40 minutes. The crew destroyed at least 5 hostile planes, of which Maj. Zeamer himself shot down 1. Although weak from loss of blood, he refused medical aid until the enemy had broken combat. He then turned over the controls, but continued to exercise command despite lapses into unconsciousness, and directed the flight to a base 580 miles away. In this voluntary action, Maj. Zeamer, with superb skill, resolution, and courage, accomplished a mission of great value.
HOWARD, JIMMIE E.: Vietnam War. Gunnery Sergeant (then S/Sgt.) U.S. Marine Corps, Company C, 1st Reconnaissance Battalion, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, 16 June 1966. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his own life above and beyond the call of duty. G/Sgt. Howard and his 18-man platoon were occupying an observation post deep within enemy-controlled territory. Shortly after midnight a Viet Cong force of estimated battalion size approached the marines' position and launched a vicious attack with small arms, automatic weapons, and mortar fire. Reacting swiftly and fearlessly in the face of the overwhelming odds, G/Sgt. Howard skillfully organized his small but determined force into a tight perimeter defense and calmly moved from position to position to direct his men's fire. Throughout the night, during assault after assault, his courageous example and firm leadership inspired and motivated his men to withstand the unrelenting fury of the hostile fire in the seemingly hopeless situation. He constantly shouted encouragement to his men and exhibited imagination and resourcefulness in directing their return fire. When fragments of an exploding enemy grenade wounded him severely and prevented him from moving his legs, he distributed his ammunition to the remaining members of his platoon and proceeded to maintain radio communications and direct air strikes on the enemy with uncanny accuracy. At dawn, despite the fact that 5 men were killed and all but 1 wounded, his beleaguered platoon was still in command of its position. When evacuation helicopters approached his position, G/Sgt. Howard warned them away and called for additional air strikes and directed devastating small-arms fire and air strikes against enemy automatic weapons positions in order to make the landing zone as secure as possible. Through his extraordinary courage and resolute fighting spirit, G/Sgt. Howard was largely responsible for preventing the loss of his entire platoon. His valiant leadership and courageous fighting spirit served to inspire the men of his platoon to heroic endeavor in the face of overwhelming odds, and reflect the highest credit upon G/Sgt. Howard, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service.
Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:
PROSSER Joseph Hunter: Crimean War. Private. 2nd Battalion, 1st Regiment, British Army. Citation: On 16 June 1855 at Sevastopol, Crimea, when on duty in the trenches, Private Prosser pursued and apprehended (while exposed to enemy cross-fire) a soldier in the act of deserting to the enemy. On 11 August he left the most advanced trench and helped to carry to safety a severely wounded soldier of the 95th Regiment who was unable to move. This act was performed under very heavy fire from the enemy.
RODGERS George: Indian Mutiny. Private. 71st Regiment, British Army. Citation: For daring conduct at Marar, Gwalior, on the 16th of June, 1858, in attacking by himself a party of seven Rebels, one of whom he killed. This was remarked as a valuable service, the party of Rebels being well armed and strongly posted in the line of advance of a detachment of the 71st Regiment.
TOMBS Joseph Harcourt: World War One. Lance-Corporal. 1st Battalion, The King's Regiment, British Army. Citation: On 16 June 1915 near Rue du Bois, France, Lance-Corporal Tombs, on his own initiative, crawled out repeatedly under very heavy shell and machine-gun fire to bring in wounded men who were lying about 100 yards in front of our trenches. He rescued four men, one of whom he dragged back by means of a rifle sling placed round his own neck and the man's body.
YOULL John (Jack) Scott: World War One. Second Lieutenant. 1st Battalion, The Northumberland Fusiliers. Citation: On 15 June 1918 south west of Asiago, Italy, Second Lieutenant Youll was commanding a patrol which came under heavy enemy fire. Sending his men back to safety he remained to watch the situation and then, unable to rejoin his company, he reported to a neighbouring unit where he took command of a party of men from different units, holding his position against enemy attack until a machine-gun opened fire behind him. He rushed and captured the gun, killing most of the team and opened fire, inflicting heavy casualties. He then carried out three separate counterattacks, driving the enemy back each time.
He was killed in action in October, 1918.
Last supplemented on June 16, 2012.
For 2012, Father's Day falls on this day in the United Stations.
Today is National Day in Iceland, commemorating Icelandic Independence.
Today is Bunker Hill Day in Suffolk County, Massachusetts.
Today is Soviet Occupation Day in Latvia.
Today is World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought.
656 Uthman ibn Affan, the Third Caliph killed by rebels at age 77 at Medina.
827 Arab conquest of Sicily begins when Asad ibn al-Furat lands with 15,000 troops.
1462 Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II forcing him to retreat from Wallachia.
1497 Battle of Deptford Bridge in which forces under King Henry VII defeat troops led by Michael An Gof.
Lack of cavalry and artillery undid the rebels.
1565 Matsunaga Hisahide assassinates the 13th Ashikaga shogun, Ashikaga Yoshiteru.
1579 Francis Drake anchors in a harbor just north of present-day San Francisco, California, and claims the territory for Queen Elizabeth I, hence explaining the media's fascination with British Royal weddings.
1631 Mumtaz Mahal dies during childbirth. Her husband, Mughal emperor Shah Jahan I, will spend the next 17 years building her mausoleum, the Taj Mahal.
1682 King Charles XII of Sweden born.
1687 Jacques-René de Brisay de Denonville sets out on an expedition against the Iroquois with Pierre de Troyes.
1745 American colonial forces capture Louisburg, Cape Breton I, from French.
1789 The Third Estate in France declared itself a national assembly and undertook to frame a constitution.
1797 Shah Aga Muhammad Khan Qajar of Persia, the first Qajar, executed, after being castrated, at age 56.
1815 Rais Hammida, decapitated by a 32-pounder shot from the USS 'Torch' while commanding the Algerian frigate Mashouda.
1817 Thomas Maley Harris, Brig Gen, U.S., born.
1823 John Henry Hobart Ward, Brig Gen, U.S., born.
1830 Richard Montgomery Gano, Brig Gen, C.S.A., born.
1849 The United States flag raised over Ft. Laramie, now a military post.
1863 Cavalry action at Aldie, Virginia. Confederates fail to drive back Union forces.
1864 General John B. Hood replaced General Johnston as head of CSA troops around Atlanta.
1866 Colonel Henry B. Carrington's column left Fort Laramie and started up the Bozeman Trail.The command arrived at Fort Reno on June 28.
1870 USS Mohican destroys the Mexican pirate ship Forward.
It's interesting to note that Crook withdrew his command all the way to the Big Horns, where it spent the balance of the summer. Amongst other things, it spent a lot of time fishing and hunting the rest of that summer.
1877 The Battle of White Bird Canyon Idaho occurs in which the Nez Perce repulsed cavalry under Gen. O. O. Howard.
1900 British forces under COL Robert Baden-Powell, who had been under siege by Boer forces in Mafeking, South Africa, were relieved by a flying column of British infantry and cavalry. Baden Powell later founded the British Boy Scout movement, and, with his wife Agnes, the Girl Guides in 1909.
1913 U.S. Marines set sail from San Diego to protect American interests in Mexico.
1916 Additional American troops under the command of Gen. Pershing enter Mexico in an effort to track down Pancho Villa. On the same day, various National Guard units, including the Wyoming National Guard, were Federalized for border service.
1928 Amelia Earhart embarked on the first trans-Atlantic flight by a woman.
1932 The U.S. Senate defeated the bonus bill as 10,000 veterans massed around the Capitol.
1933 Union Station Massacre in Kansas City, Missouri. Four FBI agents and captured fugitive Frank Nash are gunned down by gangsters attempting to free Nash.
1938 Japan declared war on China.
1940 France asked Germany for terms of surrender in World War II.
1940 The British Army's 11th Hussars assault and take Fort Capuzzo in Libya, Africa from Italian forces.
1940 Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania fall under the occupation of the Soviet Union.
1940 German dive bombers sink the liner Lancastria off St. Nazaire. 4,000 British and French troops and civilians perish in the sinking.
1943 British Wing Commander Guy Gibson, RAF, "Dam Buster" air raids on the Mohne and Eder River dams in Germany's Ruhr Valley.
1944 Iceland declares independence; King Christian X of Denmark expresses his regrets but offers his congratulations.
1945 Final Japanese defensive line on Okinawa breached.
1953 The Soviet Union orders an entire armored division of its troops into East Berlin to crush a rebellion by East German workers and protesters.
1965 First B-52 raid of Vietnam War 50 km north of Saigon.
1967 China becomes world's fourth thermonuclear power, detonating a thermonuclear device.
1972 Five are arrested in the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office and apartment complex in Washington, D.C.
Congressional Medals of Honor Awarded for action on this day:
BROSNAN, JOHN: Sergeant, Company E, 164th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 17 June 1864. ECitation: Rescued a wounded comrade who lay exposed to the enemy's fire, receiving a severe wound in the effort.
CHANDLER, HENRY F.: Sergeant, Company E, 59th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 17 June 1864. Citation: Though seriously wounded in a bayonet charge and directed to go to the rear he declined to do so, but remained with his regiment and helped to carry the breastworks.
DI CESNOLA, LOUIS P.: Colonel, 4th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Aldie, Va., 17 June 1863. Citation: Was present, in arrest, when, seeing his regiment fall back, he rallied his men, accompanied them, without arms, in a second charge, and in recognition of his gallantry was released from arrest. He continued in the action at the head of his regiment until he was desperately wounded and taken prisoner.
DICKEY, WILLIAM D.: Captain, Battery M, 15th New York Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 17 June 1864. Citation: Refused to leave the field, remaining in command after being wounded by a piece of shell, and led his command in the assault on the enemy's works on the following day.
HARBOURNE, JOHN H.: Private, Company K, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 17 June 1864. Citation: Capture of flag along with 3 enemy men.
MEYER, HENRY C.: Captain, Company D, 24th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 17 June 1864. Citation: During an assault and in the face of a heavy fire rendered heroic assistance to a wounded and helpless officer, thereby saving his life and in the performance of this gallant act sustained a severe wound.
MONAGHAN, PATRICK: Corporal, Company F, 48th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 17 June 1864. Citation: Recapture of colors of 7th New York Heavy Artillery.
MORRISON, FRANCIS: Private, Company H, 85th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Bermuda Hundred, Va., 17 June 1864. Citation: Voluntarily exposed himself to a heavy fire to bring off a wounded comrade.
PLOWMAN, GEORGE H.: Sergeant Major, 3d Maryland Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 17 June 1864. Citation: Recaptured the colors of the 2d Pennsylvania Provisional Artillery.
REID, ROBERT: Private, Company G, 48th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 17 June 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 44th Tennessee Infantry (C.S.A.).
ROWE, HENRY W.: Private, Company I, 11th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 17 June 1864. Citation: With 2 companions, he rushed and disarmed 27 enemy pickets, capturing a stand of flags.
STRAUSBAUGH, BERNARD A.: First Sergeant, Company A, 3d Maryland Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 17 June 1864. Citation: Recaptured the colors of 2d Pennsylvania Provisional Artillery.
WAGEMAN, JOHN H.: Private, Company I, 60th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 17 June 1864. Citation: Remained with the command after being severely wounded until he had fired all the cartridges in his possession, when he had to be carried from the field.
YOUNG, BENJAMIN F.: Corporal, Company I, 1st Michigan Sharpshooters. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 17 June 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 35th North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.).
McGANN, MICHAEL A.: First Sergeant, Company F, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Rosebud River, Mont., 17 June 1876. Citation: Gallantry in action.
PARNELL, WILLIAM R.: First Lieutenant, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At White Bird Canyon, Idaho, 17 June 1877. Citation: With a few men, in the face of a heavy fire from pursuing Indians and at imminent peril, returned and rescued a soldier whose horse had been killed and who had been left behind in the retreat.
ROBINSON, JOSEPH: First Sergeant, Company D, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Rosebud River, Mont., 17 June 1876. Citation: Discharged his duties while in charge of the skirmish line under fire with judgment and great coolness and brought up the lead horses at a critical moment.
SHINGLE, JOHN H.: First Sergeant, Troop 1, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Rosebud River, Mont., 17 June 1876. Citation: Gallantry in action.
SNOW, ELMER A.: Trumpeter, Company M, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Rosebud Creek, Mont., 17 June 1876. Citation. Bravery in action; was wounded in both arms.
[b]Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:
HENEAGE Clement Walker: Indian Mutiny: Citation: 8th Hussars, Captain (now Brevet-Major) Clement Walker Heneage. Selected for the Victoria Cross by their companions in the gallant charge made by a squadron of the Regiment at Gwalior, on the 17th of June, 1858, when, supported by a division of the Bombay Horse Artillery, and Her Majesty's 95th Regiment, they routed the enemy, who were advancing against Brigadier Smith's position, charged through the rebel camp into two batteries, capturing and bringing into their camp two of the enemy's guns, under a heavy and converging fire from the Fort and Town.
HOLLIS George: Indian Mutiny: Farrier. 8th Hussars. British Army Citation: Selected for the Victoria Cross by their companions in the gallant charge made by a squadron of the Regiment at Gwalior, on the 17th of June, 1858, when, supported by a division of the Bombay Horse Artillery, and Her Majesty's 95th Regiment, they routed the enemy, who were advancing against Brigadier Smith's position, charged through the rebel camp into two batteries, capturing and bringing into their camp two of the enemy's guns, under a heavy and converging fire from the Fort and Towa.
PEARSON John: Indian Mutiny: Private. 8th Hussars. British Army. Citation: Selected for the Victoria Cross by their companions in the gallant charge made by a squadron of the Regiment at Gwalior, on the 17th of June, 1858, when, supported by a division of the Bombay Horse Artillery, and Her Majesty's 95th Regiment, they routed the enemy, who were advancing against Brigadier Smith's position, charged through the rebel camp into two batteries, capturing and bringing into their camp two of the enemy's guns, under a heavy and converging fire from the Fort and Town.
WARD Joseph: Indian Mutiny: Sergeant. 8th Hussars. British Army. Citation: Selected for the Victoria Cross by their companions in the gallant charge made by a squadron of the Regiment at Gwalior, on the 17th of June, 1858, when, supported by a division of the Bombay Horse Artillery, and Her Majesty's 95th Regiment, they routed the enemy, who were advancing against Brigadier Smith's position, charged through the rebel camp into two batteries, capturing and bringing into their camp two of the enemy's guns, under a heavy and converging fire from the Fort and Towa.
AGAR Augustine William Shelton British mission to Russia. Citation: I have no citation for this, but this VC is referred to as The Secret VC. At the time of this award Agar was in command of a secret base establsihed at Terrioki Finland for the purpose of supporting agents operating in Bolshevik territory in Russia. On 17 June 1919, Agar took a more aggressive course of action, mounting a torpedo attack on the Bolshevik cruiser Oleg in Kronstadt harbor and sinking her. Agar was awarded the VC for his part in this action, receiving the DSO for a second, large-scale attack on Kronstadt in August, 1919.
Last supplemented on Father's Day, Sunday, June 17, 2012.
618 Li Yuan becomes Emperor Gaozu of Tang, initiating three centuries of Tang Dynasty rule over China.
806 Charlemagne mobilizes an army against the Sorbs from his location in Alsatia. The Sorbs remained as a identifiable ethnic group in Germany even today, although they are small in numbers.
1155 Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
1178 Five Canterbury monks see what is possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed. It is believed that the current oscillations of the Moon's distance from the Earth are a result of this collision.
1264 The Parliament of Ireland meets at Castledermot in County Kildare, the first known meeting of this Irish legislature.
1291 King Jaime II of Sicily ascends the throne of Aragon.
1429 French forces under the leadership of Joan d'Arc defeat the English army under sir John Fastolf at the Battle of Patay.
1603 Samuel de Champlain leaves Quebec with Grave du Pont to go on an exploring trip up the 'River of Canada' - the St. Lawrence and finds that the Algonkians have taken over from the Iroquois as the dominant tribe since the arrival of Jacques Cartier 80 years earlier.
1778 British evacuate Philadelphia
1812 The United States declared war against Britain.
Image courtesy of Wikipedia Commons
Waterloo's remained an enduring memory in Western culture, showing how significant it really was. So much so, that it's been incorporated into the venacular, and at least when I was a kid you'd still hear about people "meeting their Waterloo". I haven't heard that phrase for quite a while now, but the phrase was common enough that Waterloo itself showed up in at least three popular songs.
Waterloo, by Stonewall Jackson
That song refers to Bonaparte's Retreat, which is another old country song.
Waterloo was revived more recently as a musical theme by the Swedish pop band ABBA.
Waterloo, by ABBA:
Finally, there's a Waterloo Sunset by the Kinks, but I think it refers to a railroad station.
1817 Waterloo Bridge over the Thames in London opens.
1823 The British Army adopts trousers for infantry, in lieu of breeches.
1830 French invade Algeria.
1839 William Henry Seward Jr, Brig Gen, U.S., born.
1859 Captain W. F. Raynolds' expedition set out from Fort Pierre, SD, to explore the upper Yellowstone, Gallatin, and Madison Rivers.
1873 Suffragist Susan B. Anthony was fined $100 for attempting to vote in the 1872 presidential election.
1877 James Montgomery Flagg, illustrator ("Uncle Sam wants you!"), born.
1900 Empress Tsu-tse orders the Boxers to expel foreigners from China.
1910 Ticker tape parade on Broadway for Theodore Roosevelt, on his return from Africa.
1918 Allied forces on the Western Front began large counter-attack against the German army.
1928 Aviator Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean.
1940 Canada announces compulsory military training for home defense.
1940 RAF's 242 'Canadian' Squadron withdraws from France.
1942 Dr. Bernard Whitfield Robinson becomes the first black officer in the U. S. Navy.
1944 Battle of Monte Cassino in Central Italy ended.
1945 Lt Gen Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr, Commander, Tenth Army, Killed in Action onOkinawa at age 58.
1948 The United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopted the International Declaration of Human Rights.
1948 Columbia Records unveiled its new long-playing, 33 1/3 rpm phonograph record.
1979 President Jimmy Carter and Soviet President Leonid I. Brezhnev signed the SALT II strategic arms limitation treaty in Vienna.
1980 The Chinese successfully launched their first test ICBM, which traveled 6200 miles.
2004 European Union leaders agreed on the first constitution for the bloc's 25 members.
[b]Congressional Medals of Honor for action on this day:
CLARK, JAMES G.: Private, Company F, 88th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 18 June 1864. Citation: Distinguished bravery in action; was severely wounded.
LEONARD, EDWIN: Sergeant, Company I, 37th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: Near Petersburg, Va., 18 June 1864. Citation: Voluntarily exposed himself to the fire of a Union brigade to stop their firing on the Union skirmish line.
LUDWIG, CARL: Private, 34th New York Battery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 18 June 1864. tation: As gunner of his piece, inflicted singly a great loss upon the enemy and distinguished himself in the removal of the piece while under a heavy fire.
MOSTOLLER, JOHN W.: Private, Company B, 54th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Lynchburg, Va., 18 June 1864. Citation: Voluntarily led a charge on a Confederate battery (the officers of the company being disabled) and compelled its hasty removal.
Last Supplemented on Monday, June 18, 2012.
Today is Juneteenth in some US localities, a day commemorating the arrival of the news of emancipation.
325 Promulgation of the "Nicene Creed" during the Council of Nicaea.
1179 The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Earl Erling Skakke is killed, and the battle changes the tide of the civil wars.
1586 English colonists sailed from Roanoke Island, N.C. after failing to establish England's first permanent settlement in America.
1610 Samuel de Champlain defeats the Iroquois in a battle near the mouth of the Richelieu River.
1647 James, Duke of Ormond, agrees to surrender Dublin to English Parliament.
1776 Guy Carleton, Baron Dorchester gives Sir John Johnson a Royal Warrant to raise a regiment of American loyalists in Canada.
1778 Washington's troops leave Valley Forge.
1786 Gen. Nathanael Greene died of sunstroke at his Georgia plantation.
1816 Rupert's Land Governor Robert Semple intercepts Cuthbert Grant and Metis party transporting pemmican. The Metis kill Semple and 19 of his men in the ensuing Seven Oaks Massacre on the Frog Plain near Fort Douglas.
1829 In London the Metropolitan Police Act receives royal assent, establishing a paid, uniformed police for London.
1841 Sir George Arthur French organizer of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, born in Roscommon Ireland.
1862 Slavery was outlawed in U.S. territories.
1867 Maximillian, Emperor of Mexico, assassinated in Queretaro, Mexico.
Father DeSmet is recalled today in Wyoming, one of the areas in which he traveled, by way of a popular lake bearing his name, Lake DeSmet.
1886 Cornerstone laid for the Union Pacific Depot in Cheyenne, Wyoming.
http://patsrailhead.blogspot.com/2012/0 ... depot.html
1888 Marines landed in Korea and marched 25 miles to protect the Seoul Legation.
1890 Ho Chi Minh born in French Indo China.
1903 Baseball Hall of Famer Lou Gehrig was born in New York City.
1910 Father's Day was celebrated for the first time, in Spokane, Wash.
1916 Orders were received in Wyoming from the War Department to mobilize two battalions of the Wyoming National Guard for border service. On September 28th, the troops departed for the Mexican border.
1917 King George V changed the British royal family's German-sounding surname, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, to Windsor.
1918 Canadian airman and former cavalryman Billy Bishop shoots down five German planes in his last dogfight, bringing his total enemy kills to 72.
1933 Austrian Premier Dollfuss bans Nazi-organizations.
1934 The Federal Communications Commission was created.
1936 Max Schmeling knocks out Joe Louis in New York.
1937 Spanish Nationalists capture Bilbao from the Republicans.
1940 Reichmarshall Goring orders seizure of Dutch horses, cars, buses, and ships.
1942 U.S. submarine S-27 lost by grounding in the Aleutians.
1944 Battle of the Philippine Sea commences.
1944 French troops free Elba from the Germans.
1947 An F-80 becomes the first plane to exceed 600 mph.
1948 USSR blocks access to West-Berlin.
1953 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are put to death in the electric chair.
1961 Kuwait declares independence from the United Kingdom.
1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was approved after an 83-day filibuster in the U.S. Senate.
1967 Muhammad Ali is convicted of refusing induction into the Army.
Congressional Medals of Honor for action on this day:
AHEAM, MICHAEL: Paymaster's Steward, U.S. Navy. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Carrying out his duties courageously, PmS. Aheam exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended by his divisional officer for gallantry under enemy fire.
BICKFORD, JOHN F.: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Acting as the first loader of the pivot gun during this bitter engagement Bickford exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by his divisional officer.
BOND, WILLIAM: Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Carrying out his duties courageously, Bond exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by his divisional officer.
HALEY, JAMES. Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1824, Ireland. Accredited to. Ohio. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as captain of the forecastle on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Acting as captain of a gun during the bitter engagement, Haley exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly commended by his division officer for his gallantry and meritorious achievement under enemy fire.
HAM, MARK G.: Carpenter's Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1820, Portsmouth, N.H. Accredited to: New Hampshire. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Performing his duties intelligently and faithfully, Ham distinguished himself in the face of the bitter enemy fire and was highly commended by his divisional officer.
HARRISON, GEORGE H.: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No. 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Acting as sponger and loader of the 11-inch pivot gun during the bitter engagement, Harrison exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by the divisional officer.
HAYES, JOHN: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1831, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Acting as second captain of the No. 2 gun during this bitter engagement, Hayes exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by the divisional officer.
LEE, JAMES H.: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as seaman on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Acting as sponger of the No. 1 gun during this bitter engagement, Lee exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by the divisional officer.
MOORE, CHARLES: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: 25 March 1862, Gibraltar, England. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as seaman on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Acting as sponger and loader of the 1 l_inch pivot gun of the second division during this bitter engagement, Moore exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by the divisional officer.
PEASE, JOACHIM: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: Long Island, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as seaman on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Acting as loader on the No. 2 gun during this bitter engagement, Pease exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended by the divisional officer for gallantry under fire.
PERRY, THOMAS: Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836 New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as boatswain's mate on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Acting as captain of the No. 2 gun during this bitter engagement, Perry exhibited marked coolness and good conduct under the enemy fire and was recommended for gallantry by his divisional officer.
POOLE, WILLIAM B.: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833 Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Service as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Stationed at the helm, Poole steered the ship during the engagement in a cool and most creditable manner and was highly commended by his divisional officer for his gallantry under fire.
READ, CHARLES A.: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, Sweden Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as coxswain on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Acting as the first sponger of the pivot gun during this bitter engagement, Read exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by his divisional officer.
READ, GEORGE E.: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Rhode Island. Accredited to: Rhode Island. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864 Citation: Served as seaman on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Acting as the first loader of the No. 2 gun during this bitter engagement, Read exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by his divisional officer.
SAUNDERS, JAMES: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1809, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Carrying out his duties courageously throughout the bitter engagement, Saunders was prompt in reporting damages done to both ships, and it is testified to by Commodore Winslow that he is deserving of all commendation, both for gallantry and for encouragement of others in his division.
SMITH, WILLIAM: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Ireland. Accredited to: New Hampshire. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as second quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Acting as captain of the 11-inch pivot gun of the second division, Smith carried out his duties courageously and deserved special notice for the deliberate and cool manner in which he acted throughout the bitter engagement. It is stated by rebel officers that this gun was more destructive and did more damage than any other gun of Kearsarge.
STRAHAN, ROBERT: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Birth: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Accredited to: New Jersey. Citation: Served as captain of the top on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864. Acting as captain of the No. 1 gun, Strahan carried out his duties in the face of heavy enemy fire and exhibited marked coolness and good conduct throughout the engagement. Strahan was highly recommended by his division officer for his gallantry and meritorious achievements.
BAKER, THOMAS A.: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 105th Infantry, 27th Infantry Division. Place and date: Saipan, Mariana Islands, 19 June to 7 July 1944. Entered service at: Troy, N.Y. Birth: Troy, N.Y. G.O. No.: 35, 9 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty at Saipan, Mariana Islands, 19 June to 7 July 1944. When his entire company was held up by fire from automatic weapons and small-arms fire from strongly fortified enemy positions that commanded the view of the company, Sgt. (then Pvt.) Baker voluntarily took a bazooka and dashed alone to within 100 yards of the enemy. Through heavy rifle and machinegun fire that was directed at him by the enemy, he knocked out the strong point, enabling his company to assault the ridge. Some days later while his company advanced across the open field flanked with obstructions and places of concealment for the enemy, Sgt. Baker again voluntarily took up a position in the rear to protect the company against surprise attack and came upon 2 heavily fortified enemy pockets manned by 2 officers and 10 enlisted men which had been bypassed. Without regard for such superior numbers, he unhesitatingly attacked and killed all of them. Five hundred yards farther, he discovered 6 men of the enemy who had concealed themselves behind our lines and destroyed all of them. On 7 July 1944, the perimeter of which Sgt. Baker was a part was attacked from 3 sides by from 3,000 to 5,000 Japanese. During the early stages of this attack, Sgt. Baker was seriously wounded but he insisted on remaining in the line and fired at the enemy at ranges sometimes as close as 5 yards until his ammunition ran out. Without ammunition and with his own weapon battered to uselessness from hand-to-hand combat, he was carried about 50 yards to the rear by a comrade, who was then himself wounded. At this point Sgt. Baker refused to be moved any farther stating that he preferred to be left to die rather than risk the lives of any more of his friends. A short time later, at his request, he was placed in a sitting position against a small tree . Another comrade, withdrawing, offered assistance. Sgt. Baker refused, insisting that he be left alone and be given a soldier's pistol with its remaining 8 rounds of ammunition. When last seen alive, Sgt. Baker was propped against a tree, pistol in hand, calmly facing the foe. Later Sgt. Baker's body was found in the same position, gun empty, with 8 Japanese lying dead before him. His deeds were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.
McCAMPBELL, DAVID: Commander, U.S. Navy, Air Group 15. Place and date: First and second battles of the Philippine Sea, 19 June 1944. Entered service at: Florida. Born: 16 January 1 910, Bessemer, Ala. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Silver Star, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross with 2 Gold Stars, Air Medal. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commander, Air Group 15, during combat against enemy Japanese aerial forces in the first and second battles of the Philippine Sea. An inspiring leader, fighting boldly in the face of terrific odds, Comdr. McCampbell led his fighter planes against a force of 80 Japanese carrier-based aircraft bearing down on our fleet on 19 June 1944. Striking fiercely in valiant defense of our surface force, he personally destroyed 7 hostile planes during this single engagement in which the outnumbering attack force was utterly routed and virtually annihilated. During a major fleet engagement with the enemy on 24 October, Comdr. McCampbell, assisted by but l plane, intercepted and daringly attacked a formation of 60 hostile land-based craft approaching our forces. Fighting desperately but with superb skill against such overwhelming airpower, he shot down 9 Japanese planes and, completely disorganizing the enemy group, forced the remainder to abandon the attack before a single aircraft could reach the fleet. His great personal valor and indomitable spirit of aggression under extremely perilous combat conditions reflect the highest credit upon Comdr. McCampbell and the U.S. Naval Service.
MEAGHER, JOHN: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company E, 305th Infantry, 77th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Ozato, Okinawa, 19 June 1945. Entered service at: Jersey City, N.J. Birth: Jersey City, N.J. G.O. No.: 60, 26 June 1946. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. In the heat of the fight, he mounted an assault tank, and, with bullets splattering about him, designated targets to the gunner. Seeing an enemy soldier carrying an explosive charge dash for the tank treads, he shouted fire orders to the gunner, leaped from the tank, and bayoneted the charging soldier. Knocked unconscious and his rifle destroyed, he regained consciousness, secured a machinegun from the tank, and began a furious 1-man assault on the enemy. Firing from his hip, moving through vicious crossfire that ripped through his clothing, he charged the nearest pillbox, killing 6. Going on amid the hail of bullets and grenades, he dashed for a second enemy gun, running out of ammunition just as he reached the position. He grasped his empty gun by the barrel and in a violent onslaught killed the crew. By his fearless assaults T/Sgt. Meagher single-handedly broke the enemy resistance, enabling his platoon to take its objective and continue the advance.
LASSEN, CLYDE EVERETT: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, Helicopter Support Squadron 7, Detachment 104, embarked in U.S.S. Preble (DLG-15). place and date: Republic of Vietnam, 19 June 1968. Entered service at: Jacksonville, Fla. Born: 14 March 1942, Fort Myers, Fla. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as pilot and aircraft commander of a search and rescue helicopter, attached to Helicopter Support Squadron 7, during operations against enemy forces in North Vietnam. Launched shortly after midnight to attempt the rescue of 2 downed aviators, Lt. (then Lt. (J.G.)) Lassen skillfully piloted his aircraft over unknown and hostile terrain to a steep, tree-covered hill on which the survivors had been located. Although enemy fire was being directed at the helicopter, he initially landed in a clear area near the base of the hill, but, due to the dense undergrowth, the survivors could not reach the helicopter. With the aid of flare illumination, Lt. Lassen successfully accomplished a hover between 2 trees at the survivors' position Illumination was abruptly lost as the last of the flares were expended, and the helicopter collided with a tree, commencing a sharp descent. Expertly righting his aircraft and maneuvering clear, Lt. Lassen remained in the area, determined to make another rescue attempt, and encouraged the downed aviators while awaiting resumption of flare illumination. After another unsuccessful, illuminated rescue attempt, and with his fuel dangerously low and his aircraft significantly damaged, he launched again and commenced another approach in the face of the continuing enemy opposition. When flare illumination was again lost, Lt. Lassen, fully aware of the dangers in clearly revealing his position to the enemy, turned on his landing lights and completed the landing. On this attempt, the survivors were able to make their way to the helicopter. En route to the coast he encountered and successfully evaded additional hostile antiaircraft fire and, with fuel for only 5 minutes of flight remaining, landed safely aboard U.S.S. Jouett (DLG-29) .
RAY, RONALD ERIC: Captain (then 1st Lt.), U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 35th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: la Drang Valley, Republic of Vietnam, 19 June 1966. Entered service at: Atlanta, Ga. Born: 7 December 1941, Cordelle, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Ray distinguished himself while serving as a platoon leader with Company A. When 1 of his ambush patrols was attacked by an estimated reinforced Viet Cong company, Capt. Ray organized a reaction force and quickly moved through 2 kilometers of mountainous jungle terrain to the contact area. After breaking through the hostile lines to reach the beleaguered patrol, Capt. Ray began directing the reinforcement of the site. When an enemy position pinned down 3 of his men with a heavy volume of automatic weapons fire, he silenced the emplacement with a grenade and killed 4 Viet Cong with his rifle fire. As medics were moving a casualty toward a sheltered position, they began receiving intense hostile fire. While directing suppressive fire on the enemy position, Capt. Ray moved close enough to silence the enemy with a grenade. A few moments later Capt. Ray saw an enemy grenade land, unnoticed, near 2 of his men. Without hesitation or regard for his safety he dove between the grenade and the men, thus shielding them from the explosion while receiving wounds in his exposed feet and legs. He immediately sustained additional wounds in his legs from an enemy machinegun, but nevertheless he silenced the emplacement with another grenade. Although suffering great pain from his wounds, Capt. Ray continued to direct his men, providing the outstanding courage and leadership they vitally needed, and prevented their annihilation by successfully leading them from their surrounded position. Only after assuring that his platoon was no longer in immediate danger did he allow himself to be evacuated for medical treatment. By his gallantry at the risk of his life in the highest traditions of the military service, Capt. Ray has reflected great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
Today is the First Day of Summer for Leap Years.
Today is Midsummer's Eve;
An Irish poem, for which, in times past young women in Ireland gathered yarrow with this rhyme:
Good morrow, good yarrow, good morrow to thee
Send me this night my true love to see
The clothes he'll wear, the color of his hair
And if he to me, we will marry.
451 In the Battle of Chalons Flavius Aetius' battles Attila the Hun. The battle is inconclusive but Attila withdraws.
1210 King John lands at Waterford.
1214 The University of Oxford receives its charter.
1389 Ottoman sultan Murad I defeats the Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo.
1402 Battle of Angora in which the Mongols defeat the Ottomans.
1605 Czar Feodor II of Russia, age 16, was assassinated.
1631 The Irish village of Baltimore is attacked by Algerian pirates.
There's a great historical novel in this story somewhere.
I've never read a L'Amour book. What does The Warrior's Path portray?
1675 Abenaki, Massachusetts, Mohegan and Wampanoag Indians formed an anti English alliance. Wampanoag warriors attacked livestock and looted farms.
1685 Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville captures Fort Monsipi from the English.
1756 Nawab of Bengal Siraj Ud Daulah imprisons 146 Europeans in the 'Black Hole of Calcutta'. Only 23 survive.
1763 Theobald Wolf Tone born.
1782 Congress adopts the Great Seal of the United States.
1798 Irish rebels retreat to Vinegar Hill. British general's Loftus, Needham and Johnston close in on Vinegar Hill and General Moore defeats rebels at Goffs Bridge
1823 Jesse Lee Reno, Maj Gen, U.S., born.
1824 John Tyler Morgan, Brig Gen, C.S.A., born.
1837 Accession of Queen Victoria, age 18, to the British throne.
1863 West Virginia became the 35th state.
1865 Arapahos attack the eight men of Company G, 11th Ohio Cavalry, and the civilian telegraph operator, ten miles east of Sweetwater Station, Wyoming while they were repairing the telegraph line. The cavalrymen were grossly outnumbered in the assault. Three Arapahos and the telepgraph operator were killed in the engagement.
1867 US buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million.
1868 Ft. Fred Steele established in what is now Carbon County, Wyoming.
1881 Sitting Bull surrenders to the U.S. Army.
1898 U.S. Navy cruiser Charleston seized the island of Guam.
1899 Jean Moulin, hero of the French Resistance, executed 1943, born.
1909 Errol Flynn, actor, born.
1924 Audie Murphy born.
1940 Canadian Parliament passes a conscription law providing for service of conscripts in Canada if needed.
1940 France sues for peace in World War Two.
1940 9,000 Polish soldiers are evacuated from Bayonne aboard the Polish ships Batory and Sobieksi.
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1940 U-30, U-38, U-48 and U-122 each sink 1 merchant vessel around the British Isles and in Bay of Biscay.
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1941 Reservists under age 45 are called up in Finland.
1941 The US Army Air Corps is reorganized as the US Army Air Forces.
1941 The Ford Motor Company signed its first contract with teh AFL CIO.
1942 Japanese sub I-26 shells Port Estevan, near Vancouver, the only attack on Canadian soil during World War Two.
1942 Kazimierz Piechowski and three others, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, steal an SS staff car and escape from the Auschwitz concentration camp.
1942 The Afrika Korps launched a surprise attack on Tobruk.
1942 The U-67 damages Norwegian tanker MV Nortind with a torpedo but it does not sink.
http://worldwar2daybyday.blogspot.com/2 ... -1942.html
1942 In Operation Pastorius three German saboteurs are arrested in New York City. The FBI was acting on information from fourth saboteur, George Dasch, who turned himself in the day prior in Washington, D.C..
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1942 RAF raids Emden, Germany.
http://worldwar2daybyday.blogspot.com/2 ... -1942.html
1943 The Detroit Race Riot breaks out and continues for three days. Actual tensions and protest had been building for months, with there being protests in 1942.
Detroit police in 1942.
1944 The Battle of the Philippine Sea concludes.
1944 The Soviet Union demands for an unconditional surrender from Finland. Finnish government declines the demand.
1948 The US reinstitues conscription.
1963 The United States and Soviet Union signed an agreement to set up a hot line communication link.
1964 General William Westmoreland succeeded General Paul Harkins as head of the U.S. forces in Vietnam.
1967 Muhammad Ali was convicted in Houston of violating Selective Service laws by refusing to be drafted. The conviction was overturned by the Supreme Court.
1975 The movie "Jaws" was released.
1982 The Argentine base Corbeta Uruguay on Southern Thule surrenders to Royal Marines.
1991 The German parliament decides to move the capital from Bonn back to Berlin.
1999 NATO declared a formal end to its bombing campaign against Yugoslavia.
2007 Sammy Sosa of the Texas Rangers became the fifth major leaguer to hit 600 career home runs.
Congressional Medals of Honor for action on this day:
BENSON, JAMES: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, Denmark. Enlisted at: Yokohama, Japan. G.O. No.: 180, 10 October 1872. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Ossipee, 20 June 1872. Risking his life, Benson leaped into the sea while the ship was going at a speed of 4 knots and endeavored to save John K. Smith, landsman, of the same vessel, from drowning.
APPLETON, EDWIN NELSON: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 29 August 1876, Brooklyn, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 84, 22 March 1902. Citation: In action against the enemy at Tientsin, China, 20 June 1900. Crossing the river in a small boat while under heavy enemy fire, Appleton assisted in destroying buildings occupied by the enemy.
BURNES, JAMES: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 14 January 1870, Worcester, Mass. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 84, 22 March 1902. Citation: In action against the enemy at Tientsin, China, 20 June 1900. Crossing the river in a small boat with 3 other men while under a heavy fire from the enemy, Burnes assisted in destroying buildings occupied by hostile forces.
DAHLGREN, JOHN OLOF: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 14 September 1872, Kahliwar, Sweden. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China, 20 June to 16 July 1900, Dahlgren distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
FISHER, HARRY: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 20 October 1874, McKeesport, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: Served in the presence of the enemy at the battle of Peking, China, 20 June to 16 July 1900. Assisting in the erection of barricades during the action, Fisher was killed by the heavy fire of the enemy.
HEISCH, HENRY WILLIAM: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 10 June 1872, Latendorf, Germany. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 84, 22 March 1902. Citation: In action against the enemy at Tientsin, China, 20 June 1900. Crossing the river in a small boat while under heavy fire, Heisch assisted in destroying buildings occupied by the enemy.
HUNT, MARTIN: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 9 July 1873, County of Mayo, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China, 20 June to 16 July 1900, Hunt distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
McALLISTER, SAMUEL: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 23 January 1869, Belfast, Ireland. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 84, 22 March 1902. Citation: In action against the enemy at Tientsin, China, 20 June 1900. Crossing the river in a small boat while under heavy enemy fire, McAllister assisted in destroying buildings occupied by the enemy.
WALKER, EDWARD ALEXANDER: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 2 October 1864, Huntley, Scotland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China, 20 June to 16 July 1900. Throughout this period, Walker distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
O'BRIEN, WILLIAM J.: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 1st Battalion, 105th Infantry, 27th Infantry Division. Place and date: At Saipan, Marianas Islands, 20 June through 7 July 1944. Entered service at: Troy, N.Y. Birth: Troy, N.Y. G.O. No.: 35, 9 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty at Saipan, Marianas Islands, from 20 June through 7 July 1944. When assault elements of his platoon were held up by intense enemy fire, Lt. Col. O'Brien ordered 3 tanks to precede the assault companies in an attempt to knock out the strongpoint. Due to direct enemy fire the tanks' turrets were closed, causing the tanks to lose direction and to fire into our own troops. Lt. Col. O'Brien, with complete disregard for his own safety, dashed into full view of the enemy and ran to the leader's tank, and pounded on the tank with his pistol butt to attract 2 of the tank's crew and, mounting the tank fully exposed to enemy fire, Lt. Col. O'Brien personally directed the assault until the enemy strongpoint had been liquidated. On 28 June 1944, while his platoon was attempting to take a bitterly defended high ridge in the vicinity of Donnay, Lt. Col. O'Brien arranged to capture the ridge by a double envelopment movement of 2 large combat battalions. He personally took control of the maneuver. Lt. Col. O'Brien crossed 1,200 yards of sniper-infested underbrush alone to arrive at a point where 1 of his platoons was being held up by the enemy. Leaving some men to contain the enemy he personally led 4 men into a narrow ravine behind, and killed or drove off all the Japanese manning that strongpoint. In this action he captured S machineguns and one 77-mm. fieldpiece. Lt. Col. O'Brien then organized the 2 platoons for night defense and against repeated counterattacks directed them. Meanwhile he managed to hold ground. On 7 July 1944 his battalion and another battalion were attacked by an overwhelming enemy force estimated at between 3,000 and 5,000 Japanese. With bloody hand-to-hand fighting in progress everywhere, their forward positions were finally overrun by the sheer weight of the enemy numbers. With many casualties and ammunition running low, Lt. Col. O'Brien refused to leave the front lines. Striding up and down the lines, he fired at the enemy with a pistol in each hand and his presence there bolstered the spirits of the men, encouraged them in their fight and sustained them in their heroic stand. Even after he was seriously wounded, Lt. Col. O'Brien refused to be evacuated and after his pistol ammunition was exhausted, he manned a .50 caliber machinegun, mounted on a jeep, and continued firing. When last seen alive he was standing upright firing into the Jap hordes that were then enveloping him. Some time later his body was found surrounded by enemy he had killed His valor was consistent with the highest traditions of the service.
Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:
WALLER William Francis Frederick: Lieutenant. 25th Bombay Light Infantry. For great gallantry at the capture by storm of the fortress of Qwalior, on the 20th June, 1858. He and Lieutenant Rose, who was killed, were the only Europeans present, and, with a mere handful of men, they attacked the fortress, climbed -on the roof of a house, shot the, gunners opposed to them, carried all before them, and took the fort, killing every man in it.
Last supplemented on Wednesday, June 20, 2012.
Today is the Summer Solstice, except for leap years, when it occurs on the day prior.
217 BC Romans, led by Gaius Flaminius, ambushed and defeated by Hannibal at the Battle of Lake Trasimene.
1665 The first of 24 companies of the Le Régiment de Carignan-Salières arrives in New France.
1692 Abenaki Indians raid English settlements in Maine and New Hampshire.
1788 The U.S. Constitution went into effect as New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify it.
1798 The British Army defeats Irish rebels at the Battle of Vinegar Hill.
In the surprised to learn that category, I just learned that a direct ancestor on my mother's side (ggg-grandfather) participated in this battle.
On the losing side.
And paid for that with his life.
Weird to learn of an unexpected connection with a historical event of some note.
1813 US Col. Charles Boerstler halts at Queenston Ontario for the night and billets his soldiers at the farm of Loyalist James Secord and his wife Laura Secord. The Secords overhear the American plans and Laura sneaks away to warn the British. She succeeds under arduous conditions, and after being captured by the Iroquois, who turned her over to the British.
1834 Cyrus Hall McCormick received a patent for his reaping machine.
1860 The Signal Corps was authorized as a separate branch of the Army by act of Congress on March 3, 1863. It officially dates its existence from June 21, 1860, when Congress authorized the appointment of one signal officer in the Army.
1862 Union and Confederate forces skirmished at the Chickahominy Creek during the Peninsular Campaign.
1863 Confederate cavalry failed to dislodge a Union force at the Battle of LaFourche Crossing in Louisiana.
1880 Confederate cavalry veteran (Missouri) Harry Yount receives word of his appointment as a wildlife officer for Yellowstone National Park, the first person to occupy such a position. He occupied it for only about a year, but is regarded as a pioneer in the field.
1898 Guam became a US territory.
1900 General Arthur MacArthur offered amnesty to Philippinos rebelling against American rule.
1900 After the Empress declared war on all foreign powers, the Chines Boxers began a two-month assault on the legations in Beijing.
1916 Mexican government troops attack U.S. Brigadier General John J. Pershing's force at Carrizal, Mexico.
1919 The Royal Canadian Mounted Police fires a volley into a crowd of unemployed war veterans, killing two, during the Winnipeg General Strike.
1919 Admiral Ludwig von Reuter orders the scuttling of the German fleet in Scapa Flow, Orkney. Nine sailors are killed becoming the last casualties of World War I.
1921 U.S. Army Air Service pilots bombed the captured German battleship Ostfriesland to demonstrate the effectiveness of aerial bombing on warships.
1923 This advertisement ran in the Saturday Evening Post:
1929 An agreement brokered by U.S. Ambassador Dwight Whitney Morrow ends the Cristero War in Mexico. This war is the topic of a film which has just been released.
1940 France signs an armistice with Germany at Compiègne.
1940 Italy invades France. Italy invades France. They are held up, however, by a massive snow storm in the Alps and, on the Riviera by a French NCO and 7 men at Menton. Seems like a bad start for them.
http://worldwar2daybyday.blogspot.com/2 ... -1940.html
1940 U-boat sink the British decoy ship HMS Prunella (X 02).
http://worldwar2daybyday.blogspot.com/2 ... -1940.html
1940 German U-99 attacked and damaged by a German Arado 196 scout aircraft from German battlecruiser Scharnhorst.
http://worldwar2daybyday.blogspot.com/2 ... -1940.html
1941 Free French capture Damascus. 5th Indian Infantry Brigade destroyed in the village of Mezze, Syria. The Vichy French then retreat and the Australians capture the town.
http://worldwar2daybyday.blogspot.com/2 ... -1941.html
1942 Tobruk falls to Italian and German forces.
1942 A Japanese submarine fires 17 shells at nearby Fort Stevens at the mouth of the Columbia.
1942 Canadian minesweeper HMCS Georgian rams the submarine HMS P-514 fearing that it was a German submarine. The unfamiliar looking HMS P-514 was a WWI-era Russian submarine that had been transferred to Royal Navy on March 9 1942. HMS P-514 sinks with all 29 crew.
http://worldwar2daybyday.blogspot.com/2 ... -1942.html
1942 U-128 sinks American SS West Ira.
http://worldwar2daybyday.blogspot.com/2 ... -1942.html
1952 Wilfrid "Wop" May dies while on holiday in Utah.
1963 The French government announced that it was withdrawing its navy from the North Atlantic fleet of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
1963 Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini was chosen to succeed the late Pope John XXIII as head of the Roman Catholic Church, taking the name Paul VI.
1964 Jim Bunning of the Philadelphia Phillies pitched a perfect game in a 6-0 victory over the New York Mets.
1977 Menachem Begin became Israel's sixth prime minister.
1982 John Hinckley Jr. was found innocent by reason of insanity in the shootings of President Ronald Reagan and three others.
1985 Scientists announced that skeletal remains exhumed in Brazil were those of Nazi war criminal Josef Mengele.
1989 The Supreme Court ruled that burning the American flag as a form of political protest is protected by the First Amendment.
2009 Greenland assumes self-rule.
Congressional Medals of Honor awarded for action on this day:
WOOD, LEONARD: Indian Wars. Assistant Surgeon, U.S. Army. Place and date: In Apache campaign, summer of 1886. Citation: Voluntarily carried dispatches through a region infested with hostile Indians, making a journey of 70 miles in one night and walking 30 miles the next day. Also for several weeks, while in close pursuit of Geronimo's band and constantly expecting an encounter, commanded a detachment of Infantry, which was then without an officer, and to the command of which he was assigned upon his own request.
CAMPBELL, ALBERT RALPH: Boxer Rebellion. Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Citation: In action at Tientsin, China, 21 June 1900. During the advance on Tientsin, Campbell distinguished himself by his conduct.
FRANCIS, CHARLES ROBERT[/b} Boxer Rebellion. Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle near Tientsin, China, 21 June 1900, Francis distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
[b]KATES, THOMAS WILBUR: Boxer Rebellion. Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the advance on Tientsin, China, 21 June 1900, Kates distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
HARVEY, CARMEL BERNON, JR.: Vietnam War. Posthumous award. Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Binh Dinh Province, Republic of Vietnam, 21 June 1967. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Harvey distinguished himself as a fire team leader with Company B, during combat operations. Ordered to secure a downed helicopter, his platoon established a defensive perimeter around the aircraft, but shortly thereafter a large enemy force attacked the position from 3 sides. Sp4c. Harvey and 2 members of his squad were in a position directly in the path of the enemy onslaught, and their location received the brunt of the fire from an enemy machine gun. In short order, both of his companions were wounded, but Sp4c. Harvey covered this loss by increasing his deliberate rifle fire at the foe. The enemy machine gun seemed to concentrate on him and the bullets struck the ground all around his position. One round hit and armed a grenade attached to his belt. Quickly, he tried to remove the grenade but was unsuccessful. Realizing the danger to his comrades if he remained and despite the hail of enemy fire, he jumped to his feet, shouted a challenge at the enemy, and raced toward the deadly machine gun. He nearly reached the enemy position when the grenade on his belt exploded, mortally wounding Sp4c. Harvey, and stunning the enemy machine gun crew. His final act caused a pause in the enemy fire, and the wounded men were moved from the danger area. Sp4c. Harvey's dedication to duty, high sense of responsibility, and heroic actions inspired the others in his platoon to decisively beat back the enemy attack. His acts are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
MCWETHY, EDGAR LEE, JR.: Vietnam War. Posthumous award. Specialist Fifth Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Rank and organization: Binh Dinh province, Republic of Vietnam, 21 June 1967. Entered service at: Denver, Colo. Born: 22 November 1944, Leadville, Colo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Serving as a medical aidman with Company B, Sp5c. McWethy accompanied his platoon to the site of a downed helicopter. Shortly after the platoon established a defensive perimeter around the aircraft, a large enemy force attacked the position from 3 sides with a heavy volume of automatic weapons fire and grenades. The platoon leader and his radio operator were wounded almost immediately, and Sp5c. McWethy rushed across the fire-swept area to their assistance. Although he could not help the mortally wounded radio operator, Sp5c. McWethy's timely first aid enabled the platoon leader to retain command during this critical period. Hearing a call for aid, Sp5c. McWethy started across the open toward the injured men, but was wounded in the head and knocked to the ground. He regained his feet and continued on but was hit again, this time in the leg. Struggling onward despite his wounds, he gained the side of his comrades and treated their injuries. Observing another fallen rifleman Lying in an exposed position raked by enemy fire, Sp5c. McWethy moved toward him without hesitation. Although the enemy fire wounded him a third time, Sp5c. McWethy reached his fallen companion. Though weakened and in extreme pain, Sp5c. McWethy gave the wounded man artificial respiration but suffered a fourth and fatal wound. Through his indomitable courage, complete disregard for his safety, and demonstrated concern for his fellow soldiers, Sp5c. McWethy inspired the members of his platoon and contributed in great measure to their successful defense of the position and the ultimate rout of the enemy force. Sp5c. McWethy's profound sense of duty, bravery, and his willingness to accept extraordinary risks in order to help the men of his unit are characteristic of the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
MONTI, JARED C.: Afghanistan. Posthumous award. Staff Sergeant Headquarters and Headquarters Troop, 3d Squadron, 71st Cavalry Regiment, 3d Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division. Place and date: Nuristan Province, Afghanistan, on June 21, 2006. Citation: Staff Sergeant Jared C. Monti distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a team leader with , in connection with combat operations against an armed enemy in While Staff Sergeant Monti was leading a mission aimed at gathering intelligence and directing fire against the enemy, his 16-man patrol was attacked by as many as 50 enemy fighters. On the verge of being overrun, Staff Sergeant Monti quickly directed his men to set up a defensive position behind a rock formation. He then called for indirect fire support, accurately targeting the rounds upon the enemy who had closed to within 50 meters of his position. While still directing fire, Staff Sergeant Monti personally engaged the enemy with his rifle and a grenade, successfully disrupting an attempt to flank his patrol. Staff Sergeant Monti then realized that one of his Soldiers was lying wounded in the open ground between the advancing enemy and the patrol’s position. With complete disregard for his own safety, Staff Sergeant Monti twice attempted to move from behind the cover of the rocks into the face of relentless enemy fire to rescue his fallen comrade. Determined not to leave his Soldier, Staff Sergeant Monti made a third attempt to cross open terrain through intense enemy fire. On this final attempt, he was mortally wounded, sacrificing his own life in an effort to save his fellow Soldier. Staff Sergeant Monti’s selfless acts of heroism inspired his patrol to fight off the larger enemy force. Staff Sergeant Monti’s immeasurable courage and uncommon valor are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, Headquarters and Headquarters Troop, 3rd Squadron, 71st Cavalry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, and the United States Army.
Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:
LUCAS Charles Davis: Crimean War. Mate. Royal Navy. Citation: On 21 June 1854 in the Baltic, Hecla, with two other ships, was bombarding Bomarsund, a fort in the Åland Islands off of Finland. The fire was returned from the fort, and at the height of the action a live shell landed on Hecla's upper deck, with its fuse still hissing. All hands were ordered to fling themselves flat on the deck, but Lucas with great presence of mind ran forward and hurled the shell into the sea, where it exploded with a tremendous roar before it hit the water. Thanks to Lucas's action no one was killed or seriously wounded and he was immediately promoted to lieutenant by his commanding officer.
Lucus was the first person to receive the Victoria Cross.
MURRAY John: Waikato-Hauhau Maori War, New Zealand Sergeant 68th (Durham) Regiment of Foot (Light Infantry), British Army 21 June 1864. Citation: For his distinguished conduct during the engagement at Tauranga, on the 21st of June, when the Enemy's position was being stormed, in running up to a Rifle Pit containing from eight to ten of the enemy, and, without any assistance, killing or wounding every one of them. He is stated to have afterwards proceeded up the works, fighting desperately, and still continuing to bayonet the Enemy.
SMITH Frederick Augustus: Waikato-Hauhau Maori War, New Zealand Captain. 43rd (Monmouthshire) Regiment of Foot, British Army. 21 June 1864 Citation: For his distinguished conduct during the engagement at Tauranga, on the 21st of June. He is stated to have led on his Company in the most gallant manner at the attack on the Maories' position, and, although wounded previously to reaching the Rifle Pits, to have jumped down into them, where he commenced a hand to hand encounter with the Enemy, thereby giving his men great encouragement, and setting them a fine example.
Last supplemented on Thursday, June 21, 2012.
Some interesting odds and ends today.
This advertisement is discussed extensively in the thread on the early gasoline age.
Man, what a bad start to a major war. Getting held up on day one when your opponent has already surrendered to another power.
Shades of a civil war here. Free French v. Vichy.
1942 Tobruk falls to Italian and German forces.
It's interesting to note that an award that was created during the Crimean War and which uses brass from melted down Russian cannons captured in the Crimea, was very first awarded to an Irish born enlisted sailor of the Royal Navy, for an action of the coast of Finland. Not what I would have expected at all.
Animadvertistine, ubicumque stes, fumum recta in faciem ferri?
217 BC Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom.
168 BC Romans defeat Macedonian King Perseus.
Geez, what a bummer. To make it through the whole winter and have them dump you in the Spring.
1774 Parliament passes the Quebec Act.
1775 Congress issued $2,000,000 in bills of credit to fund the Revolution.
1798 John Kelly, “Kelly, the boy from Killane”, lamented in a song by The Dubliners, executed. Little is actually known about him.
1798 Following their defeat at Vinegar Hill, Irish rebel southern column marches through Sculloge Gap, into Co. Carlow. Their northern column marches to camp at Croghan.
1807 British officers of the H.M.S. Leopard boarded the U.S.S. Chesapeake after she had set sail for the Mediterranean, and demanded the right to search the ship for deserters.
1813 A British force attempted to take Craney Island near Norlfolk but lost over two hundred men and were forced to retreat. They attacked Hampton four days later.
1815 Napoleon Bonaparte abdicated for the second time.
1818 Boarding parties from the Revenue cutter Dallas seized the privateer Young Spartan.
1839 Cherokee leaders Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot assassinated for signing the Treaty of New Echota.
1847 The first doughnut with a hole in it was created.
1857 Company of Royal Canadian Rifles sent to Red River, Manitoba to police trade, train local militia and counter American influence in the region.
1864 U.S.S. Lexington withstood a surprise Confederate strike on White River Station, Arkansas.
1865 Confederate raider Shenandoah fires last shot of Civil War in Bering Strait.
1868 Arkansas was re-admitted to the Union.
1898 The 2nd U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, "Torrey's Rough Riders" left Cheyenne by rail for Camp Cuba Libre,in Jacksonville, FL.
1898 Erich Maria Remarque, the German-born author of "All Quiet on the Western Front", was born.
1911 Britain's King George V was crowned at Westminster Abbey.
1916 Theodore Roosevelt stated, at the Progressive National Committee: "Our own political fortunes, individually and collectively, are of no consequence whatever when compared with the honor and welfare of the people of the United States. Such things do not count when weighed in the balance against our duty to serve well the country in which, after we are dead, our children and our children’s children are to live."
1922 Sir Henry Hughes Wilson.Imperial Chief of Staff in 1918, assassinated in London by Joseph O’Sullivan and Reginald Dunne. This was part of the IRA campaign of the era, but ironies abound regarding the assassination. Wilson was no longer in the Army, but rather was a British Member of Parliament. O'Sullivan and Dunne were veterans of the British Army from World War One, with O'Sullivan having lost a leg in the war. Wilson had been born in Ireland.
1933 Germany banned parties other than the Nazis.
1940 France signed an armistice with Germany eight days after German forces overran Paris. The agreement provides that French POWS in German hands will remain in German hands until the conclusion of hostilities, thereby condemning 1M French soldiers to captivity for years. The agreement fails to address the French navy, which remains in French hands.
1941 Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The operation is the largest military mission in human history, involving 3.5 million German and Romanian troops, 3,350 tanks, 600,000 motor vehicles and 750,000 horses.
1942 The first delivery of V-Mail.
1942 RAF raids Emden, Germany.
http://worldwar2daybyday.blogspot.com/2 ... -1942.html
This event was noted for yesterday as well. The shelling actually commenced almost at mid night so this is a correct entry for both days.
1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the GI Bill of Rights.
1944 British and Indian troops meet at Milestone 110, ending the Japanese sieges of Kohima and Imphal, Burma.
1945 The battle for Okinawa ended.
1947 Heavy snowfall threatened to cancel a Gillette Wyoming to Douglas Wyoming horse race.
1948 The SS 'Empire Windrush' docks at Tilbury, beginning post-war immigration to the UK from the British Commonwealth.
This change came about, in part, because conscription included 18 year olds.
1971 1,500 North Vietnamese attack the 500-man South Vietnamese garrison at Fire Base Fuller on the DMZ.
1989 Opposing factions in Angola agree to a cease-fire to end a fifteen year civil war.
1993 Former first lady Pat Nixon died at age 81.
Congressional Medals of Honor for action on this day:
Victoria Crosses awarded for action on this day:
ERSKINE John MacLaren: World War One. Sergeant. 5th Battalion, The Cameronians, British Army. Citation: For most conspicuous bravery. Whilst the near lip of a crater, caused by the explosion of a large enemy mine, was being consolidated, Actg. Serjt. Erskine rushed out under continuous fire with utter disregard of danger and rescued a wounded serjeant and a private. Later, seeing his officer, who was believed to be dead, show signs of movement, he ran out to him, bandaged his head, and remained with him for fully an hour, though repeatedly fired at, whilst a shallow trench was being dug to them. He then assisted in bringing in his officer, shielding him with his own body in order to lessen the chance of his being hit again.d a serjeant in the 5th Battalion, The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles), British Army.
Sgt. Erskine was killed in action on April 14, 1917.
79 Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as the tenth Roman Emperor.
1683 William Penn signed a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania.
1713 French residents of Acadia given one year to plead allegiance to Britain or leave the country.
1763 Josephine Beauharnais Bonaparte, Empress of the French, born.
1780 Battle of Springfield fought in and around Springfield, New Jersey.
1810 John Jacob Astor forms the Pacific Fur Company.
1812 Marine Lt. John Heath became the first casualty of the War of 1812.
1817 The RC Active forced a South American privateer posing as an armed merchantman to leave the Chesapeake Bay and American waters.
1860 Congress establishes the Government Printing Office.
1865 Confederate General Stand Watie, a Cherokee chief, surrendered the last sizable Confederate army at Fort Towson, in the Oklahoma Territory.
The typewriter, fwiw, is regarded as one of the major modern machines that ultimately resulted in the incorporation of women into the workplace. Scriveners and secretaries had typically been men, prior to the typewriter, although the switch over to the typewriter in the office, and the use of women as typists, would take decades to take place.
1892 The Democratic convention in Chicago nominated former President Grover Cleveland on the first ballot.
1913 The Greeks defeat the Bulgarians in the Battle of Doiran.
1914 Pancho Villa takes Zacatecas from Victoriano Huerta.
1917 Japanese DD Matsu sunk by a German u-boat in the Mediterranean.
1919 In the Estonian War of Independence the decisive defeat of the Baltische Landeswehr in the Battle of Cesis occurs. This day is celebrated as Victory Day in Estonia.
1926 – The College Board administers the first SAT exam.
1931 Aviators Wiley Post and Harold Gatty took off from New York on the first round-the-world flight in a single-engine plane.
1940 Hitler orders preparations for an invasion of Switzerland. It is ultimately determined by the Germans that while they could do it and win, it was too expensive in terms of resources and effort for what they then had on their plate.
1940 RCMP Sgt. Henry A. Larsen leaves on the RCMP schooner St. Roch for Halifax via the Northwest Passage. HIs ship will take southerly route through Arctic islands, and after two winters trapped in the ice, will reach Halifax Oct. 11, 1942;the first ship to make the voyage from west to east, and in both directions, and to circumnavigate North America.
1942 Germans breaks the Gazala Line and drive on Egypt.
1942 Start of Canadian conscription for Second World War home service, in Canada only.
1942 Germany's newest fighter, the Focke-Wulf Fw 190, is captured intact when it mistakenly lands at RAF Pembrey in Wales. Oops.
1943 Japanese sub Ro-103 sinks two transports off Guadalcanal.
1944 Soviets commence huge offensive.
1956 Gamal Abdel Nasser was elected president of Egypt.
1959 After nine years in prison, Klaus Fuchs, the German-born Los Alamos scientist whose espionage helped the USSR build their first atomic and hydrogen bombs, is released from a British prison.
1964 President Lyndon B. Johnson announces that Henry Cabot Lodge has resigned as ambassador to South Vietnam and that Gen. Maxwell Taylor will be his replacement.
1969 Warren E. Burger was sworn in as chief justice of the United States.
1969 Ben Het, a U.S. Special Forces camp located 288 miles northeast of Saigon and six miles from the junction of the Cambodian, Laotian and South Vietnamese borders, is besieged and cut off by 2,000 North Vietnamese troops.
1990 Moldava declares independence from the Soviet Union.
1991 Iraqi troops fire shots to prevent UNSCOM/IAEA inspectors from intercepting Iraqi vehicles carrying nuclear-related equipment.
1998 Iraq admits to experimenting with deadly VX chemical agent, but says it was unable to turn it into a weapon.
1998 President Clinton said the reported discovery of traces of deadly nerve gas on an Iraqi missile warhead gave the United States new reasons to maintain U.N. sanctions against the Baghdad government.
2004 In Iraq Polish forces purchased seventeen rockets for a Soviet made rocket launcher and two mortar rounds containing the nerve agent cyclosarin.
2009 "Tonight Show" sidekick Ed McMahon, WWII Marine Corps veteran, died at 86.
Congressional Medal of Honor Citations for action on today's date.
Of particular note is the third item:
Sergeant James Drury, Company C, 4th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Weldon Railroad, Va., 23 June 1864. Saved the colors of his regiment when it was surrounded by a much larger force of the enemy and after the greater part of the regiment had been killed or captured.
Second Lieutenant John E. Butts, U.S. Army, Co. E, 60th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division. Place and date: Normandy, France, 14, 16, and 23 June 1944. Heroically led his platoon against the enemy in Normandy, France, on 14, 16, and 23 June 1944. Although painfully wounded on the 14th near Orglandes and again on the 16th while spearheading an attack to establish a bridgehead across the Douve River, he refused medical aid and remained with his platoon. A week later, near Flottemanville Hague, he led an assault on a tactically important and stubbornly defended hill studded with tanks, antitank guns, pillboxes, and machinegun emplacements, and protected by concentrated artillery and mortar fire. As the attack was launched, 2d Lt. Butts, at the head of his platoon, was critically wounded by German machinegun fire. Although weakened by his injuries, he rallied his men and directed 1 squad to make a flanking movement while he alone made a frontal assault to draw the hostile fire upon himself. Once more he was struck, but by grim determination and sheer courage continued to crawl ahead. When within 10 yards of his objective, he was killed by direct fire. By his superb courage, unflinching valor and inspiring actions, 2d Lt. Butts enabled his platoon to take a formidable strong point and contributed greatly to the success of his battalion's mission.
Second Lieutenant David R. Kingsley, U.S. Army Air Corps, 97th Bombardment Group, 15th Air Force. Place and date: Ploesti Raid, Rumania, 23 June 1944: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty, 23 June 1944 near Ploesti, Rumania, while flying as bombardier of a B17 type aircraft. On the bomb run 2d Lt. Kingsley's aircraft was severely damaged by intense flak and forced to drop out of formation but the pilot proceeded over the target and 2d Lt. Kingsley successfully dropped his bombs, causing severe damage to vital installations. The damaged aircraft, forced to lose altitude and to lag behind the formation, was aggressively attacked by 3 ME-109 aircraft, causing more damage to the aircraft and severely wounding the tail gunner in the upper arm. The radio operator and engineer notified 2d Lt. Kingsley that the tail gunner had been wounded and that assistance was needed to check the bleeding. 2d Lt. Kingsley made his way back to the radio room, skillfully applied first aid to the wound, and succeeded in checking the bleeding. The tail gunner's parachute harness and heavy clothes were removed and he was covered with blankets, making him as comfortable as possible. Eight ME-109 aircraft again aggressively attacked 2d Lt. Kingsley's aircraft and the ball turret gunner was wounded by 20mm. shell fragments. He went forward to the radio room to have 2d Lt. Kingsley administer first aid. A few minutes later when the pilot gave the order to prepare to bail out, 2d Lt. Kingsley immediately began to assist the wounded gunners in putting on their parachute harness. In the confusion the tail gunner's harness, believed to have been damaged, could not be located in the bundle of blankets and flying clothes which had been removed from the wounded men. With utter disregard for his own means of escape, 2d Lt. Kingsley unhesitatingly removed his parachute harness and adjusted it to the wounded tail gunner. Due to the extensive damage caused by the accurate and concentrated 20mm. fire by the enemy aircraft the pilot gave the order to bail out, as it appeared that the aircraft would disintegrate at any moment. 2d Lt. Kingsley aided the wounded men in bailing out and when last seen by the crewmembers he was standing on the bomb bay catwalk. The aircraft continued to fly on automatic pilot for a short distance, then crashed and burned. His body was later found in the wreckage. 2d Lt. Kingsley by his gallant heroic action was directly responsible for saving the life of the wounded gunner.
Keeping this in the equine theme, her maiden name means "Fine Harness."
"Cavalier sans Cheval"
"Do not fear the enemy, for they can take only your life.
Fear the media, for they will take your honor." Anonymous
I'm not convinced. True, the typewriter was a labor saving device; but the effort of writing is slight; also, women generally have better penmanship than men. Without further evidence I would regard this as a coincidental convergence of two trends, women moving into the workplace and invention, related in other ways but indirectly in this instance.
Also on this day, in 1876, Albert Curtis was killed by A.W. Chandler on the Little Laramie River for sheep trespass. This 1876 killing is a surprisingly early incident in what would come to be increasing violence between sheepmen and cattlemen, as earlier discussed in this thread. Curtis' father was a judge in Ohio.
1876 Crow and Arikara Scouts with Custer's command report the presence of a large village in the Little Big Horn Valley, which they are able to see from the Wolf Mountains fifteen miles away. They report the pony herd to be "like worms crawling on the grass,". They asked for a soldier to confirm the sighting. Lt. Charles Varnum, Chief of Scouts, did this and subsequently escorted Custer to the same spot, who could not see the village.
Varnum survived the Battle of the Little Big Horn and commanded Co. B, 7th Cav, at Wounded Knee in 1890. He retired under disability while stationed in the Philippines in 1907, where he remained a reserve office. He ultimately retired from that position in 1918 and returned to the United States. When he died in 1936 he was the last surviving officer of the Little Big Horn battle.
1898 American troops drove Spanish forces from La Guasimas, Cuba.
1908 Former President Grover Cleveland died in Princeton, N.J., at age 71.
1940 France signed an armistice with Italy during World War II.
1948 Communist forces cut off all land and water routes between West Germany and West Berlin, prompting the United States to organize a massive airlift.
1955 Soviet aircraft shoot down a U.S. Navy patrol plane over the Bering Strait.
1970 The Senate votes 81 to 10 to repeal the Tonkin Gulf Resolution.
Congressional Medals of Honor awarded for action on this day:
HUGHES, OLIVER: Civil War. Corporal, Company C, 12th Kentucky Infantry. Place and date: At Weldon Railroad, Va., 24 June 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 11th South Carolina (C.S.A.).
SMITH, CHARLES H.: Civil WAr. Colonel, 1st Maine Cavalry. Place and date: At St. Mary's Church, Va., 24 June 1864. Citation: Remained in the fight to the close, although severely wounded.
WEIR, HENRY C.: Civil War. Captain and Assistant Adjutant General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At St. Mary's Church, Va., 24 June 1864. Citation: The division being hard pressed and falling back, this officer dismounted, gave his horse to a wounded officer, and thus enabled him to escape. Afterwards, on foot, Captain Weir rallied and took command of some stragglers and helped to repel the last charge of the enemy.
CHURCH, JAMES ROBB: Spanish American War. Assistant Surgeon, 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry. Place and date: At Las Guasimas, Cuba, 24 June 1898.Citation: In addition to performing gallantly the duties pertaining to his position, voluntarily and unaided carried several seriously wounded men from the firing line to a secure position in the rear, m each instance being subjected to a very heavy fire and great exposure and danger.
BENNETT, EMORY L.: Korean War. Posthumous award. Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Sobangsan, Korea, 24 June 1951. Citation: Pfc. Bennett a member of Company B, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an armed enemy of the United Nations. At approximately 0200 hours, 2 enemy battalions swarmed up the ridge line in a ferocious banzai charge in an attempt to dislodge Pfc. Bennett's company from its defensive positions. Meeting the challenge, the gallant defenders delivered destructive retaliation, but the enemy pressed the assault with fanatical determination and the integrity of the perimeter was imperiled. Fully aware of the odds against him, Pfc. Bennett unhesitatingly left his foxhole, moved through withering fire, stood within full view of the enemy, and, employing his automatic rifle, poured crippling fire into the ranks of the onrushing assailants, inflicting numerous casualties. Although wounded, Pfc. Bennett gallantly maintained his l-man defense and the attack was momentarily halted. During this lull in battle, the company regrouped for counterattack, but the numerically superior foe soon infiltrated into the position. Upon orders to move back, Pfc. Bennett voluntarily remained to provide covering fire for the withdrawing elements, and, defying the enemy, continued to sweep the charging foe with devastating fire until mortally wounded. His willing self-sacrifice and intrepid actions saved the position from being overrun and enabled the company to effect an orderly withdrawal. Pfc. Bennett's unflinching courage and consummate devotion to duty reflect lasting glory on himself and the military service.[/quote]
Re: June 29:
I'm afraid the calendar has let us down today as there are no entries
Feel free to add those of military horse interest if you are aware of any for today's date.
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